AMLODIPINE BESYLATE- amlodipine besylate tablet
1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE
Amlodipine besylate tablets are indicated for the treatment of hypertension, to lower blood pressure. Lowering blood pressure reduces the risk of fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events, primarily strokes and myocardial infarctions. These benefits have been seen in controlled trials of antihypertensive drugs from a wide variety of pharmacologic classes including amlodipine besylate tablets.
Control of high blood pressure should be part of comprehensive cardiovascular risk management, including, as appropriate, lipid control, diabetes management, antithrombotic therapy, smoking cessation, exercise, and limited sodium intake. Many patients will require more than one drug to achieve blood pressure goals. For specific advice on goals and management, see published guidelines, such as those of the National High Blood Pressure Education Program’s Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC).
Numerous antihypertensive drugs, from a variety of pharmacologic classes and with different mechanisms of action, have been shown in randomized controlled trials to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and it can be concluded that it is blood pressure reduction, and not some other pharmacologic property of the drugs, that is largely responsible for those benefits. The largest and most consistent cardiovascular outcome benefit has been a reduction in the risk of stroke, but reductions in myocardial infarction and cardiovascular mortality also have been seen regularly.
Elevated systolic or diastolic pressure causes increased cardiovascular risk, and the absolute risk increase per mmHg is greater at higher blood pressures, so that even modest reductions of severe hypertension can provide substantial benefit. Relative risk reduction from blood pressure reduction is similar across populations with varying absolute risk, so the absolute benefit is greater in patients who are at higher risk independent of their hypertension (for example, patients with diabetes or hyperlipidemia), and such patients would be expected to benefit from more aggressive treatment to a lower blood pressure goal.
Some antihypertensive drugs have smaller blood pressure effects (as monotherapy) in black patients, and many antihypertensive drugs have additional approved indications and effects (e.g., on angina, heart failure, or diabetic kidney disease). These considerations may guide selection of therapy.
Amlodipine besylate tablets may be used alone or in combination with other antihypertensive agents.
1.2 Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)
- Chronic Stable Angina
Amlodipine besylate tablets are indicated for the symptomatic treatment of chronic stable angina. They may be used alone or in combination with other antianginal agents.
- Vasospastic Angina (Prinzmetal’s or Variant Angina)
Amlodipine besylate tablets are indicated for the treatment of confirmed or suspected vasospastic angina. They may be used as monotherapy or in combination with other antianginal agents.
- Angiographically Documented CADIn patients with recently documented CAD by angiography and without heart failure or an ejection fraction <40%, amlodipine besylate tablets are indicated to reduce the risk of hospitalization for angina and to reduce the risk of a coronary revascularization procedure.
2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
The usual initial antihypertensive oral dose of amlodipine besylate tablets is 5 mg once daily, and the maximum dose is 10 mg once daily.
Small, fragile, or elderly patients, or patients with hepatic insufficiency may be started on 2.5 mg once daily and this dose may be used when adding amlodipine besylate tablets to other antihypertensive therapy.
Adjust dosage according to blood pressure goals. In general, wait 7 to 14 days between titration steps. Titrate more rapidly, however, if clinically warranted, provided the patient is assessed frequently.
Angina: The recommended dose for chronic stable or vasospastic angina is 5–10 mg, with the lower dose suggested in the elderly and in patients with hepatic insufficiency. Most patients will require 10 mg for adequate effect.
Coronary artery disease: The recommended dose range for patients with coronary artery disease is 5–10 mg once daily. In clinical studies, the majority of patients required 10 mg [see Clinical Studies (14.4)].
The effective antihypertensive oral dose in pediatric patients ages 6–17 years is 2.5 mg to 5 mg once daily. Doses in excess of 5 mg daily have not been studied in pediatric patients [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.4), Clinical Studies (14.1)].
3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS
Tablets: 2.5 mg white, diamond, flat-faced, beveled edged, with “NORVASC” on one side and “2.5” on the other
Tablets: 5 mg white, elongated octagon, flat-faced, beveled edged, with “NORVASC” and “5” on one side and plain on the other
Tablets: 10 mg white, round, flat-faced, beveled edge, with “NORVASC” and “10” on one side and plain on the other
Amlodipine besylate tablets are contraindicated in patients with known sensitivity to amlodipine.
5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
Symptomatic hypotension is possible, particularly in patients with severe aortic stenosis. Because of the gradual onset of action, acute hypotension is unlikely.
5.2 Increased Angina or Myocardial Infarction
Worsening angina and acute myocardial infarction can develop after starting or increasing the dose of amlodipine besylate tablets, particularly in patients with severe obstructive coronary artery disease.
5.3 Patients with Hepatic Failure
Because amlodipine is extensively metabolized by the liver and the plasma elimination half-life (t 1/2 ) is 56 hours in patients with impaired hepatic function, titrate slowly when administering amlodipine besylate tablets to patients with severe hepatic impairment.
6 ADVERSE REACTIONS
6.1 Clinical Trials Experience
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
Amlodipine besylate tablets have been evaluated for safety in more than 11,000 patients in U.S. and foreign clinical trials. In general, treatment with amlodipine besylate tablets was well-tolerated at doses up to 10 mg daily. Most adverse reactions reported during therapy with amlodipine besylate tablets were of mild or moderate severity. In controlled clinical trials directly comparing amlodipine besylate tablets (N=1730) at doses up to 10 mg to placebo (N=1250), discontinuation of amlodipine besylate tablets because of adverse reactions was required in only about 1.5% of patients and was not significantly different from placebo (about 1%). The most commonly reported side effects more frequent than placebo are reflected in the table below. The incidence (%) of side effects that occurred in a dose related manner are as follows:
|2.5 mg||5 mg||10 mg|
Other adverse reactions that were not clearly dose related but were reported with an incidence greater than 1.0% in placebo-controlled clinical trials include the following:
|Amlodipine (%)||Placebo (%)|
For several adverse experiences that appear to be drug and dose related, there was a greater incidence in women than men associated with amlodipine treatment as shown in the following table:
The following events occurred in <1% but >0.1% of patients in controlled clinical trials or under conditions of open trials or marketing experience where a causal relationship is uncertain; they are listed to alert the physician to a possible relationship:
Cardiovascular: arrhythmia (including ventricular tachycardia and atrial fibrillation), bradycardia, chest pain, peripheral ischemia, syncope, tachycardia, vasculitis.
Central and Peripheral Nervous System: hypoesthesia, neuropathy peripheral, paresthesia, tremor, vertigo.
Gastrointestinal: anorexia, constipation, dysphagia, diarrhea, flatulence, pancreatitis, vomiting, gingival hyperplasia.
General: allergic reaction, asthenia,1 back pain, hot flushes, malaise, pain, rigors, weight gain, weight decrease.
Musculoskeletal System: arthralgia, arthrosis, muscle cramps,1 myalgia.
Psychiatric: sexual dysfunction (male 1 and female), insomnia, nervousness, depression, abnormal dreams, anxiety, depersonalization.
Respiratory System: dyspnea,1 epistaxis.
Skin and Appendages: angioedema, erythema multiforme, pruritus,1 rash,1 rash erythematous, rash maculopapular.
Special Senses: abnormal vision, conjunctivitis, diplopia, eye pain, tinnitus.
Urinary System: micturition frequency, micturition disorder, nocturia.
Autonomic Nervous System: dry mouth, sweating increased.
Metabolic and Nutritional: hyperglycemia, thirst.
Hemopoietic: leukopenia, purpura, thrombocytopenia.
Amlodipine besylate tablet therapy has not been associated with clinically significant changes in routine laboratory tests. No clinically relevant changes were noted in serum potassium, serum glucose, total triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, uric acid, blood urea nitrogen, or creatinine.
In the CAMELOT and PREVENT studies [see Clinical Studies (14.4)] , the adverse event profile was similar to that reported previously (see above), with the most common adverse event being peripheral edema.
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