Monitor serum potassium periodically in patients receiving amlodipine and benazepril hydrochloride. Drugs that affect the RAS can cause hyperkalemia. Risk factors for the development of hyperkalemia include renal insufficiency, diabetes mellitus, and the concomitant use of potassium-sparing diuretics, potassium supplements, and/or potassium-containing salt substitutes. In U.S. placebo-controlled trials of amlodipine and benazepril hydrochloride, hyperkalemia [serum potassium at least 0.5 mEq/L greater than the upper limit of normal (ULN)] not present at baseline occurred in approximately 1.5% of hypertensive patients receiving amlodipine and benazepril hydrochloride. Increases in serum potassium were generally reversible.
There have been rare reports of predominantly cholestatic hepatitis and isolated cases of acute liver failure, some of them fatal, in patients on ACE inhibitors. The mechanism is not understood. Patients receiving ACE inhibitors who develop jaundice or marked elevation of hepatic enzymes should discontinue the ACE inhibitor and be kept under medical surveillance.
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice. The adverse reaction information from clinical trials does, however, provide a basis for identifying the adverse events that appear to be related to drug use and for approximating rates.
Amlodipine and benazepril hydrochloride has been evaluated for safety in over 2,991 patients with hypertension; over 500 of these patients were treated for at least 6 months, and over 400 were treated for more than 1 year.
In a pooled analysis of 5 placebo-controlled trials involving amlodipine and benazepril hydrochloride doses up to 5/20, the reported side effects were generally mild and transient, and there was no relationship between side effects and age, sex, race, or duration of therapy. Discontinuation of therapy due to side effects was required in approximately 4% of patients treated with amlodipine and benazepril hydrochloride and in 3% of patients treated with placebo.
The most common reasons for discontinuation of therapy with amlodipine and benazepril hydrochloride in these studies were cough and edema (including angioedema).
The peripheral edema associated with amlodipine use is dose-dependent. When benazepril is added to a regimen of amlodipine, the incidence of edema is substantially reduced.
The addition of benazepril to a regimen of amlodipine should not be expected to provide additional antihypertensive effect in African-Americans. However, all patient groups benefit from the reduction in amlodipine-induced edema.
The side effects considered possibly or probably related to study drug that occurred in these trials in more than 1% of patients treated with amlodipine and benazepril hydrochloride are shown in the table below. Cough was the only adverse event with at least possible relationship to treatment that was more common on amlodipine and benazepril hydrochloride (3.3%) than on placebo (0.2%).
Percent Incidence in U.S. Placebo-controlled Trials
| Benazepril/ Amlodipine |
| Benazepril |
| Amlodipine |
*Edema refers to all edema, such as dependent edema, angioedema, facial edema.
The incidence of edema was greater in patients treated with amlodipine monotherapy (5.1%) than in patients treated with amlodipine and benazepril hydrochloride (2.1%) or placebo (2.2%).
Other side effects considered possibly or probably related to study drug that occurred in U.S. placebo-controlled trials of patients treated with amlodipine and benazepril hydrochloride or in postmarketing experience were the following:
Body as a Whole: Asthenia and fatigue.
CNS: Insomnia, nervousness, anxiety, tremor, and decreased libido.
Dermatologic: Flushing, hot flashes, rash, skin nodule, and dermatitis.
Digestive: Dry mouth, nausea, abdominal pain, dyspepsia, and esophagitis.
Musculoskeletal: cramps, and muscle cramps.
Urogenital: Sexual problems such as impotence, and polyuria.
Monotherapies of benazepril and amlodipine have been evaluated for safety in clinical trials in over 6,000 and 11,000 patients, respectively. The observed adverse reactions to the monotherapies in these trials were similar to those seen in trials of amlodipine and benazepril hydrochloride.
Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
In postmarketing experience with benazepril, there have been rare reports of Stevens-Johnson syndrome, pancreatitis, hemolytic anemia, pemphigus, thrombocytopenia, paresthesia, dysgeusia, orthostatic symptoms and hypotension, angina pectoris and arrhythmia, pruritus, photosensitivity reaction, arthralgia, arthritis, myalgia, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) increase, serum creatinine increase, renal impairment, vision impairment, agranulocytosis, neutropenia.
Rare reports in association with use of amlodipine: gingival hyperplasia, tachycardia, jaundice, and hepatic enzyme elevations (mostly consistent with cholestasis severe enough to require hospitalization), leukocytopenia, allergic reaction, hyperglycemia, dysgeusia, hypoesthesia, paresthesia, syncope, peripheral neuropathy, hypertonia, visual impairment, diplopia, hypotension, vasculitis, rhinitis, gastritis, hyperhidrosis, pruritus, skin discoloration, urticaria, erythema multiform, muscle spasms, arthralgia, micturition disorder, nocturia, erectile dysfunction, malaise, weight decrease or gain.
Other potentially important adverse experiences attributed to other ACE inhibitors and calcium channel blockers include: eosinophilic pneumonitis (ACE inhibitors) and gynecomastia (CCBs).
Simvastatin: Coadministration of simvastatin with amlodipine increases the systemic exposure of simvastatin. Limit the dose of simvastatin in patients on amlodipine to 20 mg daily.
CYP3A4 Inhibitors: Coadministration with CYP3A inhibitors (moderate and strong) results in increased systemic exposure to amlodipine and may require dose reduction. Monitor for symptoms of hypotension and edema when amlodipine is coadministered with CYP3A4 inhibitors to determine the need for dose adjustment.
CYP3A4 Inducers: No information is available on the quantitative effects of CYP3A4 inducers on amlodipine. Blood pressure should be monitored when amlodipine is co-administered with CYP3A4 inducers (e.g. rifampicin, St. John’s Wort).
Potassium Supplements and Potassium-Sparing Diuretics: Benazepril can attenuate potassium loss caused by thiazide diuretics. Potassium-sparing diuretics (spironolactone, amiloride, triamterene, and others) or potassium supplements can increase the risk of hyperkalemia. If concomitant use of such agents is indicated, the patient’s serum potassium should be monitored frequently.
Lithium: Increased serum lithium levels and symptoms of lithium toxicity have been reported in patients receiving ACE inhibitors during therapy with lithium. When coadministering amlodipine and benazepril hydrochloride and lithium, frequent monitoring of serum lithium levels is recommended.
Gold: Nitritoid reactions (symptoms include facial flushing, nausea, vomiting and hypotension) have been reported rarely in patients on therapy with injectable gold (sodium aurothiomalate) and concomitant ACE inhibitor therapy.
Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) including Selective Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitors (COX-2 Inhibitors): In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function, coadministration of NSAIDs, including selective COX-2 inhibitors, with ACE inhibitors, including benazepril, may result in deterioration of renal function, including possible acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Monitor renal function periodically in patients receiving benazepril and NSAID therapy.
The antihypertensive effect of ACE inhibitors, including benazepril, may be attenuated by NSAIDs.
Antidiabetic Agents: In rare cases, diabetic patients receiving an ACE inhibitor (including benazepril) concomitantly with insulin or oral antidiabetics may develop hypoglycemia. Such patients should therefore be advised about the possibility of hypoglycemic reactions and should be monitored accordingly.
Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) Inhibitors: The risk of angioedema may be increased in patients receiving coadministration of ACE inhibitors and mTOR inhibitors (e.g., temsirolimus, sirolimus, everolimus).
Dual Blockade of the Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS): Dual blockade of the RAS with angiotensin receptor blockers, ACE inhibitors, or aliskiren is associated with increased risks of hypotension, hyperkalemia, and changes in renal function (including acute renal failure) compared to monotherapy. Most patients receiving the combination of two RAS inhibitors do not obtain any additional benefit compared to monotherapy. In general, avoid combined use of RAS inhibitors. Closely monitor blood pressure, renal function and electrolytes in patients on amlodipine and benazepril hydrochloride and other agents that block the RAS.
Do not co-administer aliskiren with amlodipine and benazepril hydrochloride in patients with diabetes. Avoid use of aliskiren with amlodipine and benazepril hydrochloride in patients with renal impairment [glomerular filtration rate (GFR) < 60 mL/min].
Neprilysin Inhibitor: Patients taking concomitant neprilysin inhibitors may be at increased risk for angioedema. [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.1)] .
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