AMLODIPINE BESYLATE AND BENAZEPRIL HYDROCHLORIDE- amlodipine besylate and benazepril hydrochloride capsule
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Amlodipine Besylate and Benazepril Hydrochloride Capsules, USP
Initial U.S. Approval: 1995
Amlodipine besylate and benazepril hydrochloride capsules, USP are indicated for the treatment of hypertension in patients not adequately controlled on monotherapy with either agent.
The recommended initial dose of amlodipine besylate and benazepril hydrochloride capsules is one capsule of amlodipine 2.5 mg/benazepril 10 mg orally once daily.
It is usually appropriate to begin therapy with amlodipine besylate and benazepril hydrochloride capsules only after a patient has either (a) failed to achieve the desired antihypertensive effect with amlodipine or benazepril monotherapy, or (b) demonstrated inability to achieve adequate antihypertensive effect with amlodipine therapy without developing edema.
The antihypertensive effect of amlodipine besylate and benazepril hydrochloride capsules is largely attained within 2 weeks. If blood pressure remains uncontrolled, the dose may be titrated up to amlodipine 10 mg/benazepril 40 mg once daily. The dosing should be individualized and adjusted according to the patient’s clinical response.
Amlodipine is an effective treatment of hypertension in once-daily doses of 2.5 to 10 mg while benazepril is effective in doses of 10 to 80 mg. In clinical trials of amlodipine/benazepril combination therapy using amlodipine doses of 2.5 to 10 mg and benazepril doses of 10 to 40 mg, the antihypertensive effects increased with increasing dose of amlodipine in all patient groups, and the effects increased with increasing dose of benazepril in nonblack groups.
Renal Impairment: Amlodipine besylate and benazepril hydrochloride capsules is not recommended in patients with creatinine clearance ≤ 30 mL/min. No dose adjustment of amlodipine besylate and benazepril hydrochloride capsules is required in patients creatinine clearance >30 mL/min (serum creatinine roughly ≤3 mg/dL or 265 μmol/L). [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7), Use in Specific Populations (8.7) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Amlodipine besylate and benazepril hydrochloride capsules may be substituted for the titrated components.
Amlodipine besylate and benazepril hydrochloride capsules are available as follows:
5 mg/40 mg and 10 mg/40 mg.
- Do not coadminister aliskiren with angiotensin receptor blockers, ACE inhibitors, including amlodipine besylate and benazepril hydrochloride capsules in patients with diabetes.
- Amlodipine besylate and benazepril hydrochloride capsules are contraindicated in patients with a history of angioedema, with or without previous ACE inhibitor treatment, or patients who are hypersensitive to benazepril, to any other ACE inhibitor, to amlodipine, or to any of the excipients of amlodipine besylate and benazepril hydrochloride capsules.
Presumably because angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors affect the metabolism of eicosanoids and polypeptides, including endogenous bradykinin, patients receiving ACE inhibitors (including amlodipine besylate and benazepril hydrochloride) may be subject to a variety of adverse reactions, some of them serious. These reactions usually occur after one of the first few doses of the ACE inhibitor, but they sometimes do not appear until after months of therapy. Black patients receiving ACE inhibitors have a higher incidence of angioedema compared to nonblacks.
Head and Neck Angioedema: Angioedema of the face, extremities, lips, tongue, glottis, and larynx has been reported in patients treated with ACE inhibitors. In U.S. clinical trials, symptoms consistent with angioedema were seen in none of the subjects who received placebo and in about 0.5% of the subjects who received benazepril. Angioedema associated with laryngeal edema can be fatal. If laryngeal stridor or angioedema of the face, tongue, or glottis occurs, discontinue treatment with amlodipine besylate and benazepril hydrochloride and treat immediately. When involvement of the tongue, glottis, or larynx appears likely to cause airway obstruction, appropriate therapy, e.g., administer subcutaneous epinephrine injection 1:1000 (0.3-0.5 mL), promptly [see Adverse Reactions (6)].
Intestinal Angioedema: Intestinal angioedema has been reported in patients treated with ACE inhibitors. These patients presented with abdominal pain (with or without nausea or vomiting); in some cases there was no prior history of facial angioedema and C-1 esterase levels were normal. The angioedema was diagnosed by procedures including abdominal CT scan or ultrasound, or at surgery, and symptoms resolved after stopping the ACE inhibitor. Intestinal angioedema should be included in the differential diagnosis of patients on ACE inhibitors presenting with abdominal pain.
Anaphylactoid Reactions During Desensitization: Two patients undergoing desensitizing treatment with hymenoptera venom while receiving ACE inhibitors sustained life-threatening anaphylactoid reactions. In the same patients, these reactions were avoided when ACE inhibitors were temporarily withheld, but they reappeared upon inadvertent rechallenge.
Anaphylactoid Reactions During Membrane Exposure: Anaphylactoid reactions have been reported in patients dialyzed with high-flux membranes and treated concomitantly with an ACE inhibitor. Anaphylactoid reactions have also been reported in patients undergoing low-density lipoprotein apheresis with dextran sulfate absorption.
Worsening angina and acute myocardial infarction can develop after starting or increasing the dose of amlodipine, particularly in patients with severe obstructive coronary artery disease.
As with all other vasodilators, special caution is required when using amlodipine in patients suffering from aortic or mitral stenosis, or obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
Amlodipine besylate and benazepril hydrochloride can cause symptomatic hypotension. Symptomatic hypotension is most likely to occur in patients who have been volume or salt depleted as a result of diuretic therapy, dietary salt restriction, dialysis, diarrhea, or vomiting. Volume and/or salt depletion should be corrected before starting therapy with benazepril. If hypotension occurs, the patient should be placed in the supine position and if necessary given physiological saline i.v. Treatment with benazepril can be continued once blood pressure and volume have returned to normal.
In patients with congestive heart failure, with or without associated renal insufficiency, ACE inhibitor therapy may cause excessive hypotension, which may be associated with oliguria, azotemia, and (rarely) with acute renal failure and death. In such patients, start amlodipine besylate and benazepril hydrochloride therapy under close medical supervision; follow closely for the first 2 weeks of treatment and whenever the dose of the benazepril component is increased or a diuretic is added or its dose increased.
Symptomatic hypotension is also possible in patients with severe aortic stenosis.
Pregnancy Category D Use of drugs that act on the renin-angiotensin system during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy reduces fetal renal function and increases fetal and neonatal morbidity and death. Resulting oligohydramnios can be associated with fetal lung hypoplasia and skeletal deformations. Potential neonatal adverse effects include skull hypoplasia, anuria, hypotension, renal failure, and death. When pregnancy is detected, discontinue amlodipine besylate and benazepril hydrochloride as soon as possible [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1)].
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