Amoxicillan and Clavulanate Potassium

AMOXICILLAN AND CLAVULANATE POTASSIUM- amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablet, film coated
Northwind Pharmaceuticals, LLC

Indications and Usage

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets, USP and other antibacterial drugs, amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets, USP should be used only to treat infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.

Amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets, USP are a combination penicillin-class antibacterial and beta-lactamase inhibitor indicated in the treatment of infections due to susceptible isolates of the designated bacteria in the conditions listed below*:

1.1 Lower Respiratory Tract Infections

caused by beta-lactamase–producing isolates of Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis.

1.2 Acute Bacterial Otitis Media

caused by beta-lactamase–producing isolates of H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis.

1.3 Sinusitis

caused by beta-lactamase–producing isolates of H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis.

1.4 Skin and Skin Structure Infections

caused by beta-lactamase–producing isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella species.

1.5 Urinary Tract Infections

caused by beta-lactamase–producing isolates of E. coli, Klebsiella species, and Enterobacter species.

1.6 Limitations of Use

When susceptibility test results show susceptibility to amoxicillin, indicating no beta-lactamase production, amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets, USP should not be used.

Please view the manufacturer’s complete drug information at the FDA site:

http://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/lookup.cfm?setid=ffb158a1-83ba-4100-9221-175aa986dc3e

Dosage and Administration

Amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets may be taken without regard to meals; however, absorption of clavulanate potassium is enhanced when amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets are administered at the start of a meal. To minimize the potential for gastrointestinal intolerance, amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets should be taken at the start of a meal.

2.1 Adults

The usual adult dose is one amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablet 500 mg/125 mg every 12 hours or one amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablet 250 mg/125 mg every 8 hours. For more severe infections and infections of the respiratory tract, the dose should be one amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablet 875 mg/125 mg every 12 hours or one amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablet 500 mg/125 mg every 8 hours. Adults who have difficulty swallowing may be given the 125 mg/31.25 mg per 5 mL or 250 mg/62.5 mg per 5 mL suspension in place of the 500 mg/125 mg tablet. The 200 mg/28.5 mg per 5 mL suspension or the 400 mg/57 mg per 5 mL suspension may be used in place of the 875 mg/125 mg tablet.

Two amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets 250 mg/125 mg should not be substituted for one amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablet 500 mg/125 mg. Since both the amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets 250 mg/125 mg and 500 mg/125 mg contain the same amount of clavulanic acid (125 mg, as the potassium salt), two 250 mg/125 mg tablets are not equivalent to one amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablet 500 mg/125 mg.

The amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablet 250 mg/125 mg and the 250 mg/62.5 mg chewable tablet should not be substituted for each other, as they are not interchangeable. The amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablet 250 mg/125 mg and the 250 mg/62.5 mg chewable tablet do not contain the same amount of clavulanic acid (as the potassium salt). The amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablet 250 mg/125 mg contains 125 mg of clavulanic acid, whereas the 250 mg/62.5 mg chewable tablet contains 62.5 mg of clavulanic acid.

2.2 Pediatric Patients

Based on the amoxicillin component, amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets should be dosed as follows:

Neonates and Infants Aged <12 weeks (<3 months): The recommended dose of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets is 30 mg/kg/day divided every 12 hours, based on the amoxicillin component. Experience with the 200 mg/28.5 mg per 5 mL formulation in this age group is limited, and thus, use of the 125 mg/31.25 mg per 5 mL oral suspension is recommended.

Patients Aged 12 weeks (3 months) and Older: See dosing regimens provided in Table 1. The every 12 hour regimen is recommended as it is associated with significantly less diarrhea [see Clinical Studies (14.2)]. However, the every 12 hour suspension (200 mg/28.5 mg per 5 mL and 400 mg/57 mg per 5 mL) and chewable tablets (200 mg/28.5 mg and 400 mg/57 mg) contain aspartame and should not be used by phenylketonurics.

Patients Weighing 40 kg or More: Pediatric patients weighing 40 kg or more should be dosed according to adult recommendations.

The amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablet 250 mg/125 mg should not be used until the child weighs at least 40 kg, due to the different amoxicillin to clavulanic acid ratios in the amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablet 250 mg/125 mg versus the amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium chewable tablet 250 mg/62.5 mg.

2.3 Patients with Renal Impairment

Patients with impaired renal function do not generally require a reduction in dose unless the impairment is severe. Renal impairment patients with a glomerular filtration rate of <30 mL/min should not receive the amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets 875 mg/125 mg dose. Patients with a glomerular filtration rate of 10 to 30 mL/min should receive amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets 500 mg/125 mg or 250 mg/125 mg every 12 hours, depending on the severity of the infection. Patients with a glomerular filtration rate less than 10 mL/min should receive amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets 500 mg/125 mg or 250 mg/125 mg every 24 hours, depending on severity of the infection.

Hemodialysis patients should receive amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets 500 mg/125 mg or 250 mg/125 mg every 24 hours, depending on severity of the infection. They should receive an additional dose both during and at the end of dialysis.

Contraindications

4.1 Serious Hypersensitivity Reactions

Amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets are contraindicated in patients with a history of serious hypersensitivity reactions (e.g., anaphylaxis or Stevens-Johnson syndrome) to amoxicillin, clavulanate or to other beta-lactam antibacterial drugs (e.g., penicillins and cephalosporins).

4.2 Cholestatic Jaundice/Hepatic Dysfunction

Amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets are contraindicated in patients with a previous history of cholestatic jaundice/hepatic dysfunction associated with amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets.

Warnings and Precautions

5.1 Hypersensitivity Reactions

Serious and occasionally fatal hypersensitivity (anaphylactic) reactions have been reported in patients receiving beta-lactam antibacterials, including amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium. These reactions are more likely to occur in individuals with a history of penicillin hypersensitivity and/or a history of sensitivity to multiple allergens. Before initiating therapy with amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium, careful inquiry should be made regarding previous hypersensitivity reactions to penicillins, cephalosporins, or other allergens. If an allergic reaction occurs, amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium should be discontinued and appropriate therapy instituted.

5.2 Hepatic Dysfunction

Hepatic dysfunction, including hepatitis and cholestatic jaundice has been associated with the use of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium. Hepatic toxicity is usually reversible; however, deaths have been reported. Hepatic function should be monitored at regular intervals in patients with hepatic impairment.

5.3 Clostridium difficile-Associated Diarrhea (CDAD)

Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium, and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon leading to overgrowth of C. difficile.

C. difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin-producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibacterial use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over 2 months after the administration of antibacterial agents.

If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibacterial use not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibacterial treatment of C. difficile, and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.

5.4 Skin Rash in Patients with Mononucleosis

A high percentage of patients with mononucleosis who receive amoxicillin develop an erythematous skin rash. Thus, amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium should not be administered to patients with mononucleosis.

5.5 Potential for Microbial Overgrowth

The possibility of superinfections with fungal or bacterial pathogens should be considered during therapy. If superinfection occurs, amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium should be discontinued and appropriate therapy instituted.

5.7 Development of Drug-Resistant Bacteria

Prescribing amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient, and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.

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