Amoxicillin (Page 4 of 5)

13 NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY

13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility


Long-term studies in animals have not been performed to evaluate carcinogenic potential. Studies to detect mutagenic potential of amoxicillin alone have not been conducted; however, the following information is available from tests on a 4:1 mixture of amoxicillin and potassium clavulanate. Amoxicillin and potassium clavulanate was non-mutagenic in the Ames bacterial mutation assay, and the yeast gene conversion assay. Amoxicillin and potassium clavulanate was weakly positive in the mouse lymphoma assay, but the trend toward increased mutation frequencies in this assay occurred at doses that were also associated with decreased cell survival. Amoxicillin and potassium clavulanate was negative in the mouse micronucleus test and in the dominant lethal assay in mice. Potassium clavulanate alone was tested in the Ames bacterial mutation assay and in the mouse micronucleus test, and was negative in each of these assays. In a multi-generation reproduction study in rats, no impairment of fertility or other adverse reproductive effects were seen at doses up to 500 mg/kg (approximately 2 times the 3 g human dose based on body surface area).

14 CLINICAL STUDIES

14.1 H. pylori Eradication to Reduce the Risk of Duodenal Ulcer Recurrence

Randomized, double-blind clinical studies performed in the United States in patients with H. pylori and duodenal ulcer disease (defined as an active ulcer or history of an ulcer within 1 year) evaluated the efficacy of lansoprazole in combination with amoxicillin capsules and clarithromycin tablets as triple 14-day therapy, or in combination with amoxicillin capsules as dual 14-day therapy, for the eradication of H. pylori. Based on the results of these studies, the safety and efficacy of 2 different eradication regimens were established:

Triple Therapy: Amoxicillin 1 gram twice daily/clarithromycin 500 mg twice daily/lansoprazole 30 mg twice daily (see Table 6).

Dual Therapy: Amoxicillin 1 gram three times daily/lansoprazole 30 mg three times daily (see Table 7). All treatments were for 14 days. H. pylori eradication was defined as 2 negative tests (culture and histology) at 4 to 6 weeks following the end of treatment. Triple therapy was shown to be more effective than all possible dual therapy combinations. Dual therapy was shown to be more effective than both monotherapies. Eradication of H. pylori has been shown to reduce the risk of duodenal ulcer recurrence. Table 6. H. pylori Eradication Rates When Amoxicillin is Administered as Part of a Triple Therapy Regimen

a This analysis was based on evaluable patients with confirmed duodenal ulcer (active or within 1 year) and H. pylori infection at baseline defined as at least 2 of 3 positive endoscopic tests from CLOtest® , histology, and/or culture. Patients were included in the analysis if they completed the study. Additionally, if patients dropped out of the study due to an adverse event related to the study drug, they were included in the analysis as failures of therapy.b Patients were included in the analysis if they had documented H. pylori infection at baseline as defined above and had a confirmed duodenal ulcer (active or within 1 year). All dropouts were included as failures of therapy.
Study Triple Therapy Triple Therapy
Evaluable Analysisa [95% Confidence Interval] (number of patients) Intent-to-Treat Analysisb [95% Confidence Interval] (number of patients)
Study 1 92 [80 to 97.7] (n = 48) 86 [73.3 to 93.5] (n = 55)
Study 2 86 [75.7 to 93.6] (n = 66) 83 [72 to 90.8] (n = 70)

Table 7. H. pylori Eradication Rates When Amoxicillin is Administered as Part of a Dual Therapy Regimen

a This analysis was based on evaluable patients with confirmed duodenal ulcer (active or within 1 year) and H. pylori infection at baseline defined as at least 2 of 3 positive endoscopic tests from CLOtest® , histology, and/or culture. Patients were included in the analysis if they completed the study. Additionally, if patients dropped out of the study due to an adverse event related to the study drug, they were included in the analysis as failures of therapy. b Patients were included in the analysis if they had documented H. pylori infection at baseline as defined above and had a confirmed duodenal ulcer (active or within 1 year). All dropouts were included as failures of therapy.
Study Dual Therapy Dual Therapy
Evaluable Analysisa [95% Confidence Interval] (number of patients) Intent-to-Treat Analysisb [95% Confidence Interval] (number of patients)
Study 1 77 [62.5 to 87.2] (n = 51) 70 [56.8 to 81.2] (n = 60)
Study 2 66 [51.9 to 77.5] (n = 58) 61 [48.5 to 72.9] (n = 67)

15 REFERENCES

  1. Swanson-Biearman B, Dean BS, Lopez G, Krenzelok EP. The effects of penicillin and cephalosporin ingestions in children less than six years of age. Vet Hum Toxicol. 1988; 30: 66-67.

16 HOW SUPPLIED/STORAGE AND HANDLING


Amoxicillin Capsules, USP contains 250 mg or 500 mg amoxicillin USP as the trihydrate.
250 mg Capsule
Blue/Pink size “1” hard gelatin capsule filled with white to off white granular powder and imprinted with “A44” on pink body with black ink.
Bottles of 100 NDC 16714-298-01
Bottles of 500 NDC 16714-298-02
500 mg Capsule
Blue/Pink size “0EL” hard gelatin capsule filled with white to off white granular powder and imprinted with “A45” on pink body with black ink.
Bottles of 30 NDC 16714-299-01
Bottles of 50 NDC 16714-299-02
Bottles of 100 NDC 16714-299-03
Bottles of 500 NDC 16714-299-04
Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F); excursions permitted to 15° to 30°C (59° to 86°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature].
Dispense in a tight container.

17 PATIENT COUNSELING INFORMATION

Information for Patients

  • Patients should be advised that amoxicillin may be taken every 8 hours or every 12 hours, depending on the dose prescribed.
  • Patients should be counseled that antibacterial drugs, including amoxicillin, should only be used to treat bacterial infections. They do not treat viral infections (e.g., the common cold). When amoxicillin is prescribed to treat a bacterial infection, patients should be told that although it is common to feel better early in the course of therapy, the medication should be taken exactly as directed. Skipping doses or not completing the full course of therapy may: (1) decrease the effectiveness of the immediate treatment, and (2) increase the likelihood that bacteria will develop resistance and will not be treatable by amoxicillin or other antibacterial drugs in the future.
  • Patients should be counseled that diarrhea is a common problem caused by antibiotics, and it usually ends when the antibiotic is discontinued. Sometimes after starting treatment with antibiotics, patients can develop watery and bloody stools (with or without stomach cramps and fever) even as late as 2 or more months after having taken their last dose of the antibiotic. If this occurs, patients should contact their physician as soon as possible.
  • Patients should be aware that amoxicillin contains a penicillin class drug product that can cause allergic reactions in some individuals.


CLINITEST® is a registered trademark of Siemens Medical Solutions Diagnostics, and Ames Company, Inc.
CLINISTIX® is a registered trademark of Bayer Healthcare Llc, and Ames Company, Inc.
CLOtest® is a registered trademark of Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.
Manufactured for: Northstar Rx LLC
Memphis, TN 38141.
Manufactured by: Aurobindo Pharma Limited
Hyderabad-500 090, India.
M.L.No.: 57/RR/AP/2003/F/R
Revised: 07/2018

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