Probenecid decreases the renal tubular secretion of amoxicillin but does not delay renal excretion of clavulanic acid. Concurrent use with amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium may result in increased and prolonged blood concentrations of amoxicillin. Coadministration of probenecid is not recommended.
Abnormal prolongation of prothrombin time (increased international normalized ratio [INR]) has been reported in patients receiving amoxicillin and oral anticoagulants. Appropriate monitoring should be undertaken when anticoagulants are prescribed concurrently with amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium. Adjustments in the dose of oral anticoagulants may be necessary to maintain the desired level of anticoagulation.
The concurrent administration of allopurinol and amoxicillin increases the incidence of rashes in patients receiving both drugs as compared to patients receiving amoxicillin alone. It is not known whether this potentiation of amoxicillin rashes is due to allopurinol or the hyperuricemia present in these patients.
Amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium may affect intestinal flora, leading to lower estrogen reabsorption and reduced efficacy of combined oral estrogen/progesterone contraceptives.
High urine concentrations of amoxicillin may result in false-positive reactions when testing for the presence of glucose in urine using CLINITEST ® , Benedict’s Solution, or Fehling’s Solution. Since this effect may also occur with amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium, it is recommended that glucose tests based on enzymatic glucose oxidase reactions be used.
Following administration of amoxicillin to pregnant women, a transient decrease in plasma concentration of total conjugated estriol, estriol-glucuronide, conjugated estrone, and estradiol has been noted.
Teratogenic Effects: Pregnancy Category B. Reproduction studies performed in pregnant rats and mice given amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium (2:1 ratio formulation of amoxicillin:clavulanate) at oral doses up to 1200 mg/kg/day revealed no evidence of harm to the fetus due to amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium. The amoxicillin doses in rats and mice (based on body surface area) were approximately 4 and 2 times the maximum recommended adult human oral dose (875 mg every 12 hours). For clavulanate, these dose multiples were approximately 9 and 4 times the maximum recommended adult human oral dose (125 mg every 8 hours). There are, however, no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.
Oral ampicillin-class antibiotics are poorly absorbed during labor. It is not known whether use of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium in humans during labor or delivery has immediate or delayed adverse effects on the fetus, prolongs the duration of labor, or increases the likelihood of the necessity for an obstetrical intervention.
Amoxicillin has been shown to be excreted in human milk. Amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium use by nursing mothers may lead to sensitization of infants. Caution should be exercised when amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium is administered to a nursing woman.
The safety and effectiveness of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium powder for oral suspension and chewable tablets have been established in pediatric patients. Use of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets in pediatric patients is supported by evidence from studies of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets in adults with additional data from a study of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium powder for oral suspension in pediatric patients aged 2 months to 12 years with acute otitis media
Clinical Studies (14.2)]
Because of incompletely developed renal function in neonates and young infants, the elimination of amoxicillin may be delayed; clavulanate elimination is unaltered in this age group. Dosing of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium should be modified in pediatric patients aged <12 weeks (<3 months) [see Dosage and Administration (2.2)] .
Of the 3,119 patients in an analysis of clinical studies of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium, 32% were ≥65 years old, and 14% were ≥75 years old. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these subjects and younger subjects, and other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out. This drug is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of adverse reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function.
Amoxicillin is primarily eliminated by the kidney and dosage adjustment is usually required in patients with severe renal impairment (GFR <30 mL/min). See Patients with Renal Impairment (2.3) for specific recommendations in patients with renal impairment.
In case of overdosage, discontinue medication, treat symptomatically, and institute supportive measures as required. A prospective study of 51 pediatric patients at a poison-control center suggested that overdosages of less than 250 mg/kg of amoxicillin are not associated with significant clinical symptoms
Interstitial nephritis resulting in oliguric renal failure has been reported in patients after overdosage with amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium.
Crystalluria, in some cases leading to renal failure, has also been reported after amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium overdosage in adult and pediatric patients. In case of overdosage, adequate fluid intake and diuresis should be maintained to reduce the risk of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium crystalluria. Renal impairment appears to be reversible with cessation of drug administration. High blood levels may occur more readily in patients with impaired renal function because of decreased renal clearance of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium. Amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium may be removed from circulation by hemodialysis [see Dosage and Administration (2.3)] .
Amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium is an antibacterial drug [see Microbiology (12.4)] .
Mean amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium pharmacokinetic parameters in normal adults following administration of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets are shown in Table 3 and following administration of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium powder for oral suspension and chewable tablets are shown in Table 4.
|a Mean (± standard deviation) values of 14 normal adults (N=15 for clavulanate potassium in the low-dose regimens). Peak concentrations occurred approximately 1.5 hours after the dose. b Amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium administered at the start of a light meal.|
|Dose and Regimen||C max (mcg/mL)||AUC 0-24 (mcg*h/mL)|
|Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium||Amoxicillin||Clavulanate Potassium||Amoxicillin||Clavulanate Potassium|
|250 mg/125 mg every 8 hours||3.3 ± 1.12||1.5 ± 0.7||26.7 ± 4.56||12.6 ± 3.25|
|500 mg/125 mg every 12 hours||6.5 ± 1.41||1.8 ± 0.61||33.4 ± 6.76||8.6 ± 1.95|
|500 mg/125 mg every 8 hours||7.2 ± 2.26||2.4 ± 0.83||53.4 ± 8.87||15.7 ± 3.86|
|875 mg/125 mg every 12 hours||11.6 ± 2.78||2.2 ± 0.99||53.5 ± 12.31||10.2 ± 3.04|
|a Mean (± standard deviation) values of 28 normal adults. Peak concentrations occurred approximately 1 hour after the dose. b Amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium administered at the start of a light meal.|
|Dose||C max (mcg/mL)||AUC 0-24 (mcg*h/mL)|
|Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium||Amoxicillin||Clavulanate Potassium||Amoxicillin||Clavulanate Potassium|
|400 mg/57 mg (5 mL of suspension)||6.94 ± 1.24||1.1 ± 0.42||17.29 ± 2.28||2.34 ± 0.94|
|400 mg /57 mg (1 chewable tablet)||6.67 ± 1.37||1.03 ± 0.33||17.24 ± 2.64||2.17 ± 0.73|
Oral administration of 5 mL of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium 250 mg/62.5 mg per 5 mL suspension or the equivalent dose of 10 mL of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium 125 mg/31.25 mg per 5 mL suspension provides average peak serum concentrations approximately 1 hour after dosing of 6.9 mcg/mL for amoxicillin and 1.6 mcg/mL for clavulanic acid. The areas under the serum concentration curves obtained during the first 4 hours after dosing were 12.6 mcg*hr/mL for amoxicillin and 2.9 mcg*hr/mL for clavulanic acid when 5 mL of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium 250 mg/62.5 mg per 5 mL suspension or equivalent dose of 10 mL of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium 125 mg/31.25 mg per 5 mL suspension were administered to normal adults. One amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium 250 mg/62.5 mg chewable tablet or two amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium 125 mg/31.25 mg chewable tablets are equivalent to 5 mL of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium 250 mg/62.5 mg per 5 mL suspension and provide similar serum concentrations of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid.
Amoxicillin serum concentrations achieved with amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium are similar to those produced by the oral administration of equivalent doses of amoxicillin alone. Time above the minimum inhibitory concentration of 1 mcg/mL for amoxicillin has been shown to be similar after corresponding every 12 hour and every 8 hour dosing regimens of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium in adults and children.
Absorption: Dosing in the fasted or fed state has minimal effect on the pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin. While amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium can be given without regard to meals, absorption of clavulanate potassium when taken with food is greater relative to the fasted state. In one study, the relative bioavailability of clavulanate was reduced when amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium was dosed at 30 and 150 minutes after the start of a high-fat breakfast.
Distribution: Neither component in amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium is highly protein-bound; clavulanic acid is approximately 25% bound to human serum and amoxicillin approximately 18% bound.
Amoxicillin diffuses readily into most body tissues and fluids with the exception of the brain and spinal fluid.
Two hours after oral administration of a single 35 mg/kg dose of suspension of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium to fasting children, average concentrations of 3 mcg/mL of amoxicillin and 0.5 mcg/mL of clavulanic acid were detected in middle ear effusions.
Metabolism and Excretion: The half-life of amoxicillin after the oral administration of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium is 1.3 hours and that of clavulanic acid is 1 hour.
Approximately 50% to 70% of the amoxicillin and approximately 25% to 40% of the clavulanic acid are excreted unchanged in urine during the first 6 hours after administration of a single amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablet 250 mg/125 mg or 500 mg/125 mg.
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