Probenecid decreases the renal tubular secretion of amoxicillin. Concurrent use with amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium for oral suspension may result in increased and prolonged blood levels of amoxicillin. Co-administration of probenecid is not recommended.
Abnormal prolongation of prothrombin time (increased international normalized ratio [INRI]) has been reported in patients receiving amoxicillin and oral anticoagulants. Appropriate monitoring should be undertaken when anticoagulants are prescribed concurrently. Adjustments in the dose of oral anticoagulants may be necessary to maintain the desired level of anticoagulation.
The concurrent administration of allopurinol and amoxicillin increases substantially the incidence of rashes in patients receiving both drugs as compared to patients receiving amoxicillin alone. It is not known whether this potentiation of amoxicillin rashes is due to allopurinol or the hyperuricemia present in these patients. There are no data with amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium for oral suspension and allopurinol administered concurrently.
Amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium for oral suspension may affect intestinal flora, leading to lower estrogen reabsorption and reduced efficacy of combined oral estrogen/progesterone contraceptives.
High urine concentrations of amoxicillin may result in false-positive reactions when testing for the presence of glucose in urine using CLINITEST® , Benedict’s Solution, or Fehling’s Solution. Since this effect may also occur with amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium for oral suspension, it is recommended that glucose tests based on enzymatic glucose oxidase reactions be used.
Following administration of amoxicillin to pregnant women, a transient decrease in plasma concentration of total conjugated estriol, estriol-glucuronide, conjugated estrone, and estradiol has been noted.
Pregnancy Category B
There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium in pregnant women. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, use this drug during pregnancy only if clearly needed.
Reproduction studies performed in pregnant rats and mice given amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium (2:1 ratio formulation of amoxicillin:clavulanate) at oral doses up to 1200 mg/kg/day revealed no evidence of harm to the fetus due to amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium. The amoxicillin doses in rodents (based on body surface area and assuming a 20 kg child) were approximately 2 times (rats) or equal to (mice) the recommended clinical amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium for oral suspension dose of 90/6.4 mg/kg/day. For clavulanate, these dose multiples were approximately 15 times and 7.5 times the recommended daily dose of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium for oral suspension.
Oral ampicillin-class antibacterial drugs are generally poorly absorbed during labor. Studies in guinea pigs have shown that intravenous administration of ampicillin decreased the uterine tone, frequency of contractions, height of contractions, and duration of contractions. However, it is not known whether the use of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium in humans during labor or delivery has immediate or delayed adverse effects on the fetus, prolongs the duration of labor, or increases the likelihood that forceps delivery or other obstetrical intervention or resuscitation of the newborn will be necessary. In a single study in women with premature rupture of fetal membranes, it was reported that prophylactic treatment with amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium may be associated with an increased risk of necrotizing enterocolitis in neonates.
Ampicillin-class antibacterial drugs are excreted in human milk; therefore, caution should be exercised when amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium is administered to a nursing woman.
Safety and efficacy of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium in infants younger than 3 months have not been established. Safety and efficacy of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium have been demonstrated for treatment of acute otitis media in infants and children 3 months to 12 years [see Description of Clinical Studies (14)].
The safety and effectiveness of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium for oral suspension have been established for the treatment of pediatric patients (3 months to 12 years) with acute bacterial sinusitis. This use is supported by evidence from adequate and well-controlled studies of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium extended release tablets in adults with acute bacterial sinusitis, studies of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium for oral suspension in pediatric patients with acute otitis media, and by similar pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin and clavulanate in pediatric patients taking amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium for oral suspension [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY (12)] and adults taking amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium extended-release tablets.
Following overdosage, patients have experienced primarily gastrointestinal symptoms including stomach and abdominal pain, vomiting, and diarrhea. Rash, hyperactivity, or drowsiness has also been observed in a small number of patients.
In the case of overdosage, discontinue amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium for oral suspension, treat symptomatically, and institute supportive measures as required. If the overdosage is very recent and there is no contraindication, an attempt at emesis or other means of removal of drug from the stomach may be performed. A prospective study of 51 pediatric patients at a poison control center suggested that overdosage of less than 250 mg/kg of amoxicillin is not associated with significant clinical symptoms and does not require gastric emptying.4
Interstitial nephritis resulting in oliguric renal failure has been reported in a small number of patients after overdosage with amoxicillin.
Crystalluria, in some cases leading to renal failure, has also been reported after amoxicillin overdosage in adult and pediatric patients. In case of overdosage, adequate fluid intake and diuresis should be maintained to reduce the risk of amoxicillin crystalluria.
Renal impairment appears to be reversible with cessation of drug administration. High blood levels may occur more readily in patients with impaired renal function because of decreased renal clearance of both amoxicillin and clavulanate. Both amoxicillin and clavulanate are removed from the circulation by hemodialysis.
Amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium for oral suspension, USP is an oral antibacterial combination consisting of the semisynthetic antibacterial amoxicillin and the beta-lactamase inhibitor, clavulanate potassium (the potassium salt of clavulanic acid). Amoxicillin is an analog of ampicillin, derived from the basic penicillin nucleus, 6-aminopenicillanic acid. The amoxicillin molecular formula is C16 H19 N3 05 S•3H2 O, and the molecular weight is 419.46. Chemically, amoxicillin is (2S ,5R ,6R)-6-[(R)-(-)-2-Amino-2-(p -hydroxyphenyl)acetamido]-3,3-dimethyl-7-oxo-4-thia-1-azabicyclo [3.2.0] heptane-2-carboxylic acid trihydrate and may be represented structurally as:
Clavulanic acid is produced by the fermentation of Streptomyces clavuligerus. It is a beta-lactam structurally related to the penicillins and possesses the ability to inactivate a wide variety of beta-lactamases by blocking the active sites of these enzymes. Clavulanic acid is particularly active against the clinically important plasmid-mediated beta-lactamases frequently responsible for transferred drug resistance to penicillins and cephalosporins. The clavulanate potassium molecular formula is C8 H8 KNO5 and the molecular weight is 237.25. Chemically, clavulanate potassium is potassium (Z)-(2R ,5R)-3-(2-hydroxyethylidene)-7-oxo-4-oxa-1-azabicyclo[3.2.0]-heptane-2-carboxylate and may be represented structurally as:
Powder for Oral Suspension
Caramel flavor, carboxymethyl cellulose sodium, citric acid, colloidal silicon dioxide, microcrystalline cellulose, orange flavor, raspberry flavor, saccharin sodium, silicon dioxide, sodium citrate, and xanthan gum.
Each 5 mL of reconstituted Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium for Oral Suspension 600 mg/42.9 mg per 5 mL contains 600 mg amoxicillin as the trihydrate and 42.9 mg clavulanic acid as the potassium salt (clavulanate potassium). The potassium content per 5 mL is 0.23 mEq (equivalent to 9 mg).
Color and appearance of the dry powder
White to yellowish white crystalline powder.
Color and appearance of the suspension
Almost white to yellow, homogeneous suspension.
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