Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium Extended Release (Page 2 of 6)
5.3 Clostridium difficile- Associated Diarrhea
Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium Extended Release Tablets, and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon leading to overgrowth of C. difficile.
C. difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibiotic use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents.
If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibiotic use not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of C. difficile , and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.
5.4 Skin Rash in Patients with Mononucleosis
A high percentage of patients with mononucleosis who receive amoxicillin develop an erythematous skin rash. Thus, Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium Extended Release Tablet should not be administered to patients with mononucleosis.
5.5 Potential for Microbial Overgrowth
The possibility of superinfections with mycotic or bacterial pathogens should be kept in mind during therapy. If superinfections occur (usually involving Pseudomonas spp. or Candida spp.), the drug should be discontinued and/or appropriate therapy instituted.
5.6 Development of Drug-Resistant Bacteria
Prescribing Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium Extended Release Tablet in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.
6 ADVERSE REACTIONS
The following are discussed in more detail in other sections of the labeling:
Anaphylactic reactions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]
Hepatic Dysfunction [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]
CDAD [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]
6.1 Clinical Trials Experience
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
In clinical trials, 5,643 patients have been treated with Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium Extended Release Tablets. The most frequently reported adverse reactions which were suspected or probably drug-related were diarrhea (15%), vaginal mycosis (3%) nausea (2%), and loose stools (2%). Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium Extended Release Tablets had a higher rate of diarrhea which required corrective therapy (4% versus 3% for Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium Extended Release Tablets and all comparators, respectively). Two percent of patients discontinued therapy because of drug-related adverse reactions.
6.2 Postmarketing Experience
In addition to adverse reactions reported from clinical trials, the following have been identified during postmarketing use of Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium products, including Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium Extended Release Tablets. Because they are reported voluntarily from a population of unknown size, estimates of frequency cannot be made. These events have been chosen for inclusion due to a combination of their seriousness, frequency of reporting, or potential causal connection to Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium.
Gastrointestinal: Diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, indigestion, gastritis, stomatitis, glossitis, black “hairy” tongue, mucocutaneous candidiasis, enterocolitis, and hemorrhagic/pseudo membranous colitis. Onset of pseudomembranous colitis symptoms may occur during or after antibiotic treatment.
Hypersensitivity Reactions: Skin rashes, pruritus, urticaria, angioedema, serum sickness-like reactions (urticaria or skin rash accompanied by arthritis, arthralgia, myalgia, and frequently fever), erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis, hypersensitivity vasculitis, and an occasional case of exfoliative dermatitis (including toxic epidermal necrolysis) have been reported [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
Liver: A moderate rise in AST (SGOT) and/or ALT (SGPT) has been noted in patients treated with ampicillin-class antibiotics, but the significance of these findings is unknown. Hepatic dysfunction, including hepatitis and cholestatic jaundice, [see Contraindications (4)] , increases in serum transaminases (AST and/or ALT), serum bilirubin, and/or alkaline phosphatase, has been reported with Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium or Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium Extended Release Tablets. It has been reported more commonly in the elderly, in males, or in patients on prolonged treatment. The histologic findings on liver biopsy have consisted of predominantly cholestatic, hepatocellular, or mixed cholestatic-hepatocellular changes. The onset of signs/symptoms of hepatic dysfunction may occur during or several weeks after therapy has been discontinued. The hepatic dysfunction, which may be severe, is usually reversible. Deaths have been reported [see Contraindications (4.2), Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].
Renal: Interstitial nephritis, hematuria, and crystalluria have been reported [see Overdosage (10)].
Hemic and Lymphatic Systems: Anemia, including hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, thrombocytopenic purpura, eosinophilia, leukopenia, and agranulocytosis have been reported during therapy with penicillins. These reactions are usually reversible on discontinuation of therapy and are believed to be hypersensitivity phenomena. There have been reports of increased prothrombin time in patients receiving Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium and anticoagulant therapy concomitantly.
Central Nervous System: Agitation, anxiety, behavioral changes, confusion, convulsions, dizziness, headache, insomnia, and reversible hyperactivity have been reported rarely.
Miscellaneous: Tooth discoloration (brown, yellow, or gray staining) has been reported. Most reports occurred in pediatric patients. Discoloration was reduced or eliminated with brushing or dental cleaning in most cases.
7 DRUG INTERACTIONS
Probenecid decreases the renal tubular secretion of amoxicillin. Concurrent use with Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium Extended Release Tablets may result in increased and prolonged blood levels of amoxicillin. Coadministration of probenecid is not recommended.
7.2 Oral Anticoagulants
Abnormal prolongation of prothrombin time (increased international normalized ratio [INR]) has been reported rarely in patients receiving amoxicillin and oral anticoagulants. Appropriate monitoring should be undertaken when anticoagulants are prescribed concurrently. Adjustments in the dose of oral anticoagulants may be necessary to maintain the desired level of anticoagulation.
The concurrent administration of allopurinol and amoxicillin substantially increases the incidence of rashes in patients receiving both drugs as compared to patients receiving amoxicillin alone. It is not known whether this potentiation of amoxicillin rashes is due to allopurinol or the hyperuricemia present in these patients. In controlled clinical trials of Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium Extended Release Tablets, 25 patients received concomitant allopurinol and Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium Extended Release Tablets. No rashes were reported in these patients. However, this sample size is too small to allow for any conclusions to be drawn regarding the risk of rashes with concomitant Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium Extended Release Tablets and allopurinol use.
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