Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium Extended Release (Page 3 of 6)
7.4 Oral Contraceptives
Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium Extended Release Tablets may affect intestinal flora, leading to lower estrogen reabsorption and reduced efficacy of combined oral estrogen/progesterone contraceptives.
7.5 Effects on Laboratory Tests
High urine concentrations of amoxicillin may result in false-positive reactions when testing for the presence of glucose in urine using CLINITEST®, Benedict’s Solution, or Fehling’s Solution. Since this effect may also occur with Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium, it is recommended that glucose tests based on enzymatic glucose oxidase reactions be used.
Following administration of amoxicillin to pregnant women, a transient decrease in plasma concentration of total conjugated estriol, estriol-glucuronide, conjugated estrone, and estradiol has been noted.
8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS
Teratogenic Effects: Pregnancy Category B. Reproduction studies performed in pregnant rats and mice given Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium at oral doses up to 1,200 mg/kg/day revealed no evidence of harm to the fetus due to Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium. In terms of body surface area, the doses in rats were 1.6 times the maximum human oral dose of amoxicillin and 13 times the maximum human dose for clavulanate. For mice, these doses were 0.9 and 7.4 times the maximum human oral dose of Amoxicillin and Clavulanate, respectively. There are, however, no adequate and well controlled studies in pregnant women. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.
8.2 Labor and Delivery
Oral ampicillin-class antibiotics are generally poorly absorbed during labor. Studies in guinea pigs have shown that intravenous administration of ampicillin decreased the uterine tone, frequency of contractions, height of contractions, and duration of contractions. However, it is not known whether the use of Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium Extended Release Tablets in humans during labor or delivery has immediate or delayed adverse effects on the fetus, prolongs the duration of labor, or increases the likelihood that forceps delivery or other obstetrical intervention or resuscitation of the newborn will be necessary. In a single study in women with premature rupture of fetal membranes, it was reported that prophylactic treatment with Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium may be associated with an increased risk of necrotizing enterocolitis in neonates.
8.3 Nursing Mothers
Amoxicillin has been shown to be excreted in human milk; therefore, caution should be exercised when Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium Extended Release Tablets is administered to a nursing woman.
8.4 Pediatric Use
The safety and effectiveness of Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium Extended Release Tablets have been established for pediatric patients weighing ≥ 40 kg who are able to swallow tablets. Use of Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium Extended Release Tablets in these pediatric patients is supported by evidence from adequate and well-controlled trials of adults with acute bacterial sinusitis and community-acquired pneumonia with additional data from a pediatric pharmacokinetic study. A pharmacokinetic study in pediatric patients (7 to 15 years of age and weighing ≥ 40 kg) was conducted [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
The adverse event profile in 44 pediatric patients who received at least one dose of Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium Extended Release Tablet was consistent with the established adverse event profile for the product in adults.
8.5 Geriatric Use
Of the total number of subjects in clinical studies of Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium Extended Release Tablets, 18% were 65 years or older and 7% were 75 years or older. No overall differences in safety and effectiveness were observed between these subjects and younger subjects, and other clinical experience has not reported differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients, but a greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out.
This drug is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of dose dependent toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, it may be useful to monitor renal function.
8.6 Renal Impairment
The pharmacokinetics of Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium Extended Release Tablets have not been studied in patients with renal impairment. Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium Extended Release Tablets is contraindicated in patients with a creatinine clearance of < 30 mL/min and in hemodialysis patients [see Contraindications (4)].
8.7 Hepatic Impairment
Hepatically impaired patients should be dosed with caution and hepatic function monitored at regular intervals [see Contraindications (4.2) and Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].
Following overdosage, patients have experienced primarily gastrointestinal symptoms including stomach and abdominal pain, vomiting, and diarrhea. Rash, hyperactivity, or drowsiness have also been observed in a small number of patients.
In the case of overdosage, discontinue Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium Extended Release Tablets, treat symptomatically, and institute supportive measures as required. If the overdosage is very recent and there is no contraindication, an attempt at emesis or other means of removal of drug from the stomach may be performed. A prospective study of 51 pediatric patients at a poison control center suggested that overdosages of less than 250 mg/kg of amoxicillin are not associated with significant clinical symptoms and do not require gastric emptying5.
Interstitial nephritis resulting in oliguric renal failure has been reported in a small number of patients after overdosage with amoxicillin.
Crystalluria, in some cases leading to renal failure, has also been reported after amoxicillin overdosage in adult and pediatric patients. In the case of overdosage, adequate fluid intake and diuresis should be maintained to reduce the risk of amoxicillin crystalluria.
Renal impairment appears to be reversible with cessation of drug administration. High blood levels may occur more readily in patients with impaired renal function because of decreased renal clearance of both amoxicillin and clavulanate. Both amoxicillin and clavulanate are removed from the circulation by hemodialysis [see Dosage and Administration (2)].
Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium Extended Release Tablet for oral use is an antibacterial combination consisting of the semisynthetic antibacterial amoxicillin (present as amoxicillin trihydrate and amoxicillin sodium) and the β-lactamase inhibitor clavulanate potassium (the potassium salt of clavulanic acid). Amoxicillin is an analog of ampicillin, derived from the basic penicillin nucleus 6‑aminopenicillanic acid. The amoxicillin trihydrate molecular formula is C16 H19 N3 O5 S•3H2 O, and the molecular weight is 419.45. Chemically, amoxicillin trihydrate is (2S,5R,6R)-6-[(R)-(-)-2-Amino-2-(p-hydroxyphenyl)acetamido]-3,3-dimethyl-7-oxo-4-thia-1-azabicyclo[3.2.0]heptane-2-carboxylic acid trihydrate and may be represented structurally as:
The amoxicillin sodium molecular formula is C16 H18 N3 NaO5 S, and the molecular weight is 387.39. Chemically, amoxicillin sodium is [2 -[2α,5α,6β(S*)]]-6-[[Amino(4-hydroxyphenyl)acetyl]amino]-3,3-dimethyl-7-oxo-4-thia-1- azabicyclo[3.2.0]heptane-2-carboxylic acid monosodium salt and may be represented structurally as:
Clavulanic acid is produced by the fermentation of Streptomyces clavuligerus. It is a β-lactam structurally related to the penicillins and possesses the ability to inactivate a wide variety of β-lactamases by blocking the active sites of these enzymes. Clavulanic acid is particularly active against the clinically important plasmid-mediated β-lactamases frequently responsible for transferred drug resistance to penicillins and cephalosporins. The clavulanate potassium molecular formula is C8 H8 KNO5 , and the molecular weight is 237.25. Chemically, clavulanate potassium is potassium (Z)-(2R ,5R)-3-(2-hydroxy ethylidene)-7-oxo-4-oxa-1-azabicyclo[3.2.0]-heptane-2-carboxylate, and may be represented structurally as:
Inactive Ingredients: Citric acid, colloidal silicon dioxide, hypromellose, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, polyethylene glycol, sodium starch glycolate, titanium dioxide, and xanthan gum.
Each tablet of Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium Extended Release Tablets contains approximately 13 mg of potassium and 30 mg of sodium.
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