Ampicillin (Page 3 of 5)

Information for Patients

Patients should be counseled that antibacterial drugs including ampicillin should only be used to treat bacterial infections. They do not treat viral infections (e.g., the common cold). When ampicillin is prescribed to treat a bacterial infection, patients should be told that although it is common to feel better early in the course of therapy, the medication should be taken exactly as directed. Skipping doses or not completing the full course of therapy may: (1) decrease the effectiveness of the immediate treatment, and (2) increase the likelihood that bacteria will develop resistance and will not be treatable by ampicillin or other antibacterial drugs in the future.

Diarrhea is a common problem caused by antibiotics which usually ends when the antibiotic is discontinued. Sometimes after starting treatment with antibiotics, patients can develop watery and bloody stools (with or without stomach cramps and fever) even as late as two or more months after having taken the last dose of the antibiotic. If this occurs, patients should contact their physician as soon as possible.

Laboratory Tests

As with any potent drug, periodic assessment of organ system function, including renal, hepatic, and hematopoietic, should be made during prolonged therapy.

Transient elevation of serum transaminase has been observed following administration of ampicillin. The significance of this finding is not known.

Drug Interactions

The concurrent administration of allopurinol and ampicillin increases substantially the incidence of skin rashes in patients receiving both drugs as compared to patients receiving ampicillin alone. It is not known whether this potentiation of ampicillin rashes is due to allopurinol or the hyperuricemia present in these patients.

Drug/Laboratory Test Interactions

With high urine concentrations of ampicillin, false-positive glucose reactions may occur if Clinitest, Benedict’s Solution, or Fehling’s Solution are used. Therefore, it is recommended that glucose tests based on enzymatic glucose oxidase reactions (such as Clinistix or Tes-Tape) be used.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, and Impairment of Fertility

No long-term animal studies have been conducted with this drug.

Pregnancy Category B

Reproduction studies have been performed in laboratory animals at doses several times the human dose and have revealed no evidence of adverse effects due to ampicillin. There are, however, no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.

Labor and Delivery

Oral ampicillin-class antibiotics are poorly absorbed during labor. Studies in guinea pig showed that intravenous administration of ampicillin slightly decreased the uterine tone and frequency of contractions, but moderately increased the height and duration of contractions. However, it is not known whether use of these drugs in humans during labor or delivery has immediate or delayed adverse effects on the fetus, prolongs the duration of labor, or increases the likelihood that forceps delivery or other obstetrical intervention or resuscitation of the newborn will be necessary.

Nursing Mothers

Ampicillin is excreted in trace amounts in human milk. Therefore, caution should be exercised when ampicillin-class antibiotics are administered to a nursing woman.

Pediatric Use

Guidelines for the administration of these drugs to children, including neonates are presented in DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION section.

ADVERSE REACTIONS

As with other penicillins, it may be expected that untoward reactions will be essentially limited to sensitivity phenomena. They are more likely to occur in individuals who have previously demonstrated hypersensitivity to penicillins and in those with a history of allergy, asthma, hay fever, or urticaria.

The following adverse reactions have been reported as associated with the use of ampicillin:

Gastrointestinal

Glossitis, stomatitis, black “hairy” tongue, nausea, vomiting, enterocolitis, pseudomembranous colitis, and diarrhea. (These reactions are usually associated with oral dosage forms.)

Hypersensitivity Reactions

Skin rashes and urticaria have been reported frequently. A few cases of exfoliative dermatitis and erythema multiforme have been reported. Anaphylaxis is the most serious reaction experienced and has usually been associated with the parenteral dosage form.

Note: Urticaria, other skin rashes, and serum sickness-like reactions may be controlled with antihistamines and, if necessary, systemic corticosteroids. Whenever such reactions occur, ampicillin should be discontinued, unless, in the opinion of the physician, the condition being treated is life-threatening and amenable only to ampicillin therapy. Serious anaphylactic reactions require the immediate use of epinephrine, oxygen, and intravenous steroids.

Liver – A moderate rise in serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) has been noted, particularly in infants, but the significance of this finding is unknown. Mild transitory SGOT elevations have been observed in individuals receiving larger (two to four times) than usual and oft-repeated intramuscular injections. Evidence indicates that glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) is released at the site of intramuscular injection of ampicillin sodium and that the presence of increased amounts of this enzyme in the blood does not necessarily indicate liver involvement.

Hemic and Lymphatic Systems – Anemia, thrombocytopenia, thrombocytopenic purpura, eosinophilia, leukopenia, and agranulocytosis have been reported during therapy with the penicillins. These reactions are usually reversible on discontinuation of therapy and are believed to be hypersensitivity phenomena.

Central Nervous System — Seizures

OVERDOSAGE

In cases of overdose, discontinue medication, treat symptomatically, and institute supportive measures as required. In patients with renal function impairment, ampicillin-class antibiotics can be removed by hemodialysis but not peritoneal dialysis.

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

Infections of the respiratory tract and soft tissues.

Patients weighing 40 kg (88 lbs) or more: 250 mg to 500 mg every 6 hours.

Patients weighing less than 40 kg (88 lbs): 25 to 50 mg/kg/day in equally divided doses at 6- to 8- hour intervals.

Infections of the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts (including those caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae in females).

Patients weighing 40 kg (88 lbs) or more: 500 mg every 6 hours.

Patients weighing less than 40 kg (88 lbs): 50 mg/kg/day in equally divided doses at 6- to 8- hour intervals.

In the treatment of chronic urinary tract and intestinal infections, frequent bacteriological and clinical appraisal is necessary. Smaller doses than those recommended above should not be used. Higher doses should be used for stubborn or severe infections. In stubborn infections, therapy may be required for several weeks. It may be necessary to continue clinical and/or bacteriological follow-up for several months after cessation of therapy.

Urethritis in males due to N. gonorrhoeae.

Adults – Two doses of 500 mg each at an interval of 8 to 12 hours. Treatment may be repeated if necessary or extended if required.

In the treatment of complications of gonorrheal urethritis, such as prostatitis and epididymitis, prolonged and intensive therapy is recommended. Cases of gonorrhea with a suspected primary lesion of syphilis should have darkfield examinations before receiving treatment. In all other cases where concomitant syphilis is suspected, monthly serological tests should be made for a minimum of four months.

The doses for the preceding infections may be given by either the intramuscular or intravenous route. A change to oral ampicillin may be made when appropriate.

Bacterial Meningitis

Adults and children – 150 to 200 mg/kg/day in equally divided doses every 3 to 4 hours. (Treatment may be initiated with intravenous drip therapy and continued with intramuscular injections.) The doses for other infections may be given by either the intravenous or intramuscular route.

Neonates (less than or equal to 28 days of postnatal age) -Dosage should be based on Gestational age and Postnatal age according to Table 3.

TABLE 3: Dosage in Neonates (less than or equal to 28 days of postnatal age) for Bacterial Meningitis and Septicemia:

Gestational age (weeks)

Postnatal age (davs)

Dosage

less than or equal to 34

less than or equal to 7

100 mg/kg/day in equally divided doses every 12 hours

less than or equal to 34

greater than or equal to 8 and less than 28

150 mg/kg/day in equally divided doses every 12 hours

greater than 34

less than or equal to 28

150 mg/kg/day in equally divided doses every 8 hours

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