AMPICILLIN- ampicillin sodium injection, powder, for solution
Athenex Pharmaceutical Division, LLC.
Athenex Rx only
To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of ampicillin and other antibacterial drugs, ampicillin should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria.
Ampicillin for Injection, USP the monosodium salt of [2S-[2α, 5α, 6β(S*)]]-6-[(aminophenylacetyl)amino]-3,3-dimethyl-7-oxo-4-thia-1-azabicyclo [3.2.0] heptane-2-carboxylic acid, is a synthetic penicillin. It is an antibacterial agent with a broad spectrum of bactericidal activity against both penicillin-susceptible Gram-positive organisms and many common Gram-negative pathogens.
Ampicillin for Injection, USP is a dry, white to off-white powder. The reconstituted solution is clear, colorless and free from visible particulates.
Each vial of Ampicillin for Injection, USP contains ampicillin sodium equivalent to 250 mg, 500 mg, 1 gram or 2 grams ampicillin. Ampicillin for Injection, USP contains 65.8 mg [2.9 mEq] sodium per gram ampicillin.
It has the following molecular structure:
The molecular formula is C16 H18 N3 NaO4 S, and the molecular weight is 371.39. The pH range of the reconstituted solution is 8 to 10.
Ampicillin for Injection, USP diffuses readily into most body tissues and fluids. However, penetration into the cerebrospinal fluid and brain occurs only when the meninges are inflamed. Ampicillin is excreted largely unchanged in the urine and its excretion can be delayed by concurrent administration of probenecid. Due to maturational changes in renal function, ampicillin half-life decreases as postmenstrual age (a sum of gestational age and postnatal age) increases for infants with postnatal age of less than 28 days. The active form appears in the bile in higher concentrations than those found in serum. Ampicillin is the least serum-bound of all the penicillins, averaging about 20% compared to approximately 60 to 90% for other penicillins. Ampicillin for Injection, USP is well-tolerated by most patients and has been given in doses of 2 grams daily for many weeks without adverse reactions.
While in vitro studies have demonstrated the susceptibility of most strains of the following organisms, clinical efficacy for infections other than those included in the INDICATIONS AND USAGE section has not been demonstrated.
The following bacteria have been shown in in vitro studies to be susceptible to Ampicillin for Injection, USP:
Hemolytic and nonhemolytic streptococci
Most strains of enterococci.
Many strains of Salmonella , Shigella , and E. coli.
AMPICILLIN does not resist destruction by penicillinase.
For specific information regarding susceptibility test interpretive criteria and associated test methods and quality control standards recognized by FDA for this drug, please see: https://www.fda.gov/STIC.
Ampicillin for Injection, USP is indicated in the treatment of infections caused by susceptible strains of the designated organisms in the following conditions:
Respiratory Tract Infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus (penicillinase and nonpenicillinase-producing), H. influenzae , and Group A beta-hemolytic streptococci.
Bacterial Meningitis caused by E. coli, Group B streptococci, and other Gram-negative bacteria (Listeria monocytogenes, N. meningitidis). The addition of an aminoglycoside with ampicillin may increase its effectiveness against Gram-negative bacteria.
Septicemia and Endocarditis caused by susceptible Gram-positive organisms including Streptococcus spp., penicillin G-susceptible staphylococci, and enterococci. Gram-negative sepsis caused by E. coli, Proteus mirabilis and Salmonella spp. responds to ampicillin. Endocarditis due to enterococcal strains usually respond to intravenous therapy. The addition of an aminoglycoside may enhance the effectiveness of ampicillin when treating streptococcal endocarditis.
Urinary Tract Infections caused by sensitive strains of E. coli and Proteus mirabilis.
Gastrointestinal Infections caused by Salmonella typhi (typhoid fever), other Salmonella spp., and Shigella spp. (dysentery) usually respond to oral or intravenous therapy.
Bacteriology studies to determine the causative organisms and their susceptibility to ampicillin should be performed. Therapy may be instituted prior to obtaining results of susceptibility testing. It is advisable to reserve the parenteral form of this drug for moderately severe and severe infections and for patients who are unable to take the oral forms. A change to oral ampicillin may be made as soon as appropriate.
To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of Ampicillin for Injection, USP and other antibacterial drugs, Ampicillin for Injection, USP should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.
Indicated surgical procedures should be performed.
A history of a previous hypersensitivity reaction to any of the penicillins is a contraindication.
Serious and occasionally fatal hypersensitivity (anaphylactoid) reactions have been reported in patients on penicillin therapy. Although anaphylaxis is more frequent following parenteral therapy, it has occurred in patients on oral penicillins. These reactions are more apt to occur in individuals with a history of penicillin hypersensitivity and/or a history of sensitivity to multiple allergens.
There have been well-documented reports of individuals with a history of penicillin hypersensitivity reactions who have experienced severe hypersensitivity reactions when treated with a cephalosporin. Before initiating therapy with a penicillin, careful inquiry should be made concerning previous hypersensitivity reactions to penicillins, cephalosporins, and other allergens. If an allergic reaction occurs, the drug should be discontinued and appropriate therapy instituted.
SERIOUS ANAPHYLACTOID REACTIONS REQUIRE IMMEDIATE EMERGENCY TREATMENT WITH EPINEPHRINE, OXYGEN, INTRAVENOUS STEROIDS, AND AIRWAY MANAGEMENT, INCLUDING INTUBATION, SHOULD ALSO BE ADMINISTERED AS INDICATED.
Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including ampicillin for injection, and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon leading to overgrowth of C. difficile.
C. difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibiotic use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents.
If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibiotic use not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of C. difficile , and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.
The possibility of superinfections with mycotic organisms or bacterial pathogens should be kept in mind during therapy. In such cases, discontinue the drug and substitute appropriate treatment.
A high percentage (43 to 100 percent) of patients with infectious mononucleosis who receive ampicillin develop a skin rash. Typically, the rash appears 7 to 10 days after the start of oral ampicillin therapy and remains for a few days to a week after the drug is discontinued. In most cases, the rash is maculopapular, pruritic, and generalized. Therefore, the administration of ampicillin is not recommended in patients with mononucleosis. It is not known whether these patients are truly allergic to ampicillin.
Prescribing ampicillin for injection in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.
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