Ampicillin and Sulbactam (Page 2 of 5)
Staphylococcus aureus (beta-lactamase and non-beta-lactamase producing), Staphylococcus epidermidis (beta-lactamase and non-beta-lactamase producing), Staphylococcus saprophyticus (beta-lactamase and non-beta-lactamase producing), Streptococcus faecalis † (Enterococcus), Streptococcus pneumoniae † (formerly D. pneumoniae), Streptococcus pyogenes † , Streptococcus viridans †.
Haemophilus influenzae (beta-lactamase and non-beta-lactamase producing), Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis (beta-lactamase and non-beta-lactamase producing), Escherichia coli (beta-lactamase and non-beta-lactamase producing), Klebsiella species (all known strains are beta-lactamase producing), Proteus mirabilis (beta-lactamase and non-beta-lactamase producing), Proteus vulgaris , Providencia rettgeri , Providencia stuartii , Morganella morganii , and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (beta-lactamase and non-beta-lactamase producing).
Clostridium species† , Peptococcus species† , Peptostreptococcus species, Bacteroides species, including B. fragilis.
† These are not beta-lactamase producing strains and, therefore, are susceptible to ampicillin alone.
For specific information regarding susceptibility test interpretive criteria and associated test methods and quality control standards recognized by FDA for this drug, please see: https://www.fda.gov/STIC.
INDICATIONS AND USAGE
Ampicillin and Sulbactam for Injection, USP is indicated for the treatment of infections due to susceptible strains of the designated microorganisms in the conditions listed below.
Skin and Skin Structure Infections caused by beta-lactamase producing strains of Staphylococcus aureus , Escherichia coli * , Klebsiella spp.* (including K. pneumoniae *), Proteus mirabilis * , Bacteroides fragilis * , Enterobacter spp.* , and Acinetobacter calcoaceticus * .
NOTE: For information on use in pediatric patients see PRECAUTIONS-Pediatric Use and CLINICAL STUDIES sections.
Intra-Abdominal Infections caused by beta-lactamase producing strains of Escherichia coli , Klebsiella spp. (including K. pneumoniae *), Bacteroides spp. (including B. fragilis), and Enterobacter spp.*
Gynecological Infections caused by beta-lactamase producing strains of Escherichia coli * , and Bacteroides spp.* (including B. fragilis *).
*Efficacy for this organism in this organ system was studied in fewer than 10 infections.
While Ampicillin and Sulbactam for Injection, USP is indicated only for the conditions listed above, infections caused by ampicillin-susceptible organisms are also amenable to treatment with Ampicillin and Sulbactam for Injection, USP due to its ampicillin content. Therefore, mixed infections caused by ampicillin-susceptible organisms and beta-lactamase producing organisms susceptible to Ampicillin and Sulbactam for Injection, USP should not require the addition of another antibacterial.
Appropriate culture and susceptibility tests should be performed before treatment in order to isolate and identify the organisms causing infection and to determine their susceptibility to Ampicillin and Sulbactam for Injection, USP.
Therapy may be instituted prior to obtaining the results from bacteriological and susceptibility studies when there is reason to believe the infection may involve any of the beta-lactamase producing organisms listed above in the indicated organ systems. Once the results are known, therapy should be adjusted if appropriate.
To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain effectiveness of Ampicillin and Sulbactam for Injection, USP and other antibacterial drugs, Ampicillin and Sulbactam for Injection, USP should be used only to treat infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.
The use of ampicillin and sulbactam for injection is contraindicated in individuals with a history of serious hypersensitivity reactions (e.g., anaphylaxis or Stevens-Johnson syndrome) to ampicillin, sulbactam or to other beta-lactam antibacterial drugs (e.g., penicillins and cephalosporins).
Ampicillin and sulbactam for injection is contraindicated in patients with a previous history of cholestatic jaundice/hepatic dysfunction associated with ampicillin and sulbactam for injection.
Serious and occasionally fatal hypersensitivity (anaphylactic) reactions have been reported in patients on penicillin therapy. These reactions are more apt to occur in individuals with a history of penicillin hypersensitivity and/or hypersensitivity reactions to multiple allergens. There have been reports of individuals with a history of penicillin hypersensitivity who have experienced severe reactions when treated with cephalosporins. Before therapy with a penicillin, careful inquiry should be made concerning previous hypersensitivity reactions to penicillins, cephalosporins, and other allergens. If an allergic reaction occurs, ampicillin and sulbactam for injection should be discontinued and the appropriate therapy instituted.
Hepatic dysfunction, including hepatitis and cholestatic jaundice has been associated with the use of ampicillin and sulbactam for injection. Hepatic toxicity is usually reversible; however, deaths have been reported. Hepatic function should be monitored at regular intervals in patients with hepatic impairment.
Severe Cutaneous Adverse Reactions
Ampicillin and sulbactam for injection may cause severe skin reactions, such as toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), dermatitis exfoliative, erythema multiforme, and acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP). If patients develop a skin rash they should be monitored closely and ampicillin and sulbactam for injection discontinued if lesions progress (see CONTRAINDICATIONS and ADVERSE REACTIONS sections).
Clostridium difficile -Associated Diarrhea
Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including ampicillin and sulbactam for injection, and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon leading to overgrowth of C. difficile.
C. difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibacterial drug use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents.
If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibacterial drug use not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibacterial treatment of C. difficile , and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.
A high percentage of patients with mononucleosis who receive ampicillin develop a skin rash. Thus, ampicillin class antibacterials should not be administered to patients with mononucleosis. In patients treated with ampicillin and sulbactam for injection the possibility of superinfections with mycotic or bacterial pathogens should be kept in mind during therapy. If superinfections occur (usually involving Pseudomonas or Candida), the drug should be discontinued and/or appropriate therapy instituted.
Prescribing ampicillin and sulbactam for injection in the absence of proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.
All MedLibrary.org resources are included in as near-original form as possible, meaning that the information from the original provider has been rendered here with only typographical or stylistic modifications and not with any substantive alterations of content, meaning or intent.