Ampicillin and Sulbactam (Page 4 of 5)
Neurological adverse reactions, including convulsions, may occur with the attainment of high CSF levels of beta-lactams. Ampicillin may be removed from circulation by hemodialysis. The molecular weight, degree of protein binding and pharmacokinetics profile of sulbactam suggest that this compound may also be removed by hemodialysis.
Skin and Skin Structure Infections in Pediatric Patients
Data from a controlled clinical trial conducted in pediatric patients provided evidence supporting the safety and efficacy of ampicillin and sulbactam for injection for the treatment of skin and skin structure infections. Of 99 pediatric patients evaluable for clinical efficacy, 60 patients received a regimen containing intravenous ampicillin and sulbactam for injection, and 39 patients received a regimen containing intravenous cefuroxime. This trial demonstrated similar outcomes (assessed at an appropriate interval after discontinuation of all antimicrobial therapy) for ampicillin and sulbactam for injection- and cefuroxime-treated patients:
|Therapeutic Regimen||Clinical Success||Clinical Failure|
|Ampicillin and sulbactam for injection||51/60 (85%)||9/60 (15%)|
|Cefuroxime||34/39 (87%)||5/39 (13%)|
Most patients received a course of oral antimicrobials following initial treatment with intravenous administration of parenteral antimicrobials. The study protocol required that the following three criteria be met prior to transition from intravenous to oral antimicrobial therapy: 1) receipt of a minimum of 72 hours of intravenous therapy; 2) no documented fever for prior 24 hours; and 3) improvement or resolution of the signs and symptoms of infection.
The choice of oral antimicrobial agent used in this trial was determined by susceptibility testing of the original pathogen, if isolated, to oral agents available. The course of oral antimicrobial therapy should not routinely exceed 14 days.
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
Ampicillin and sulbactam for injection may be administered by either the IV or the IM routes.
For IV administration, the dose can be given by slow intravenous injection over at least 10 to 15 minutes or can also be delivered in greater dilutions with 50 to 100 mL of a compatible diluent as an intravenous infusion over 15 to 30 minutes.
Ampicillin and sulbactam for injection may be administered by deep intramuscular injection. (See DIRECTIONS FOR USE-Preparation for Intramuscular Injection section.)
The recommended adult dosage of ampicillin and sulbactam for injection is 1.5 gram (1 gram ampicillin as the sodium salt plus 0.5 gram sulbactam as the sodium salt) to 3 grams (2 grams ampicillin as the sodium salt plus 1 gram sulbactam as the sodium salt) every six hours. This 1.5 to 3 grams range represents the total of ampicillin content plus the sulbactam content of ampicillin and sulbactam for injection, and corresponds to a range of 1 gram ampicillin/0.5 gram sulbactam to 2 grams ampicillin/1 gram sulbactam. The total dose of sulbactam should not exceed 4 grams per day.
Pediatric Patients 1 Year of Age or Older
The recommended daily dose of ampicillin and sulbactam for injection in pediatric patients is 300 mg per kg of body weight administered via intravenous infusion in equally divided doses every 6 hours. This 300 mg/kg/day dosage represents the total ampicillin content plus the sulbactam content of ampicillin and sulbactam for injection, and corresponds to 200 mg ampicillin/100 mg sulbactam per kg per day. The safety and efficacy of ampicillin and sulbactam for injection administered via intramuscular injection in pediatric patients have not been established. Pediatric patients weighing 40 kg or more should be dosed according to adult recommendations, and the total dose of sulbactam should not exceed 4 grams per day. The course of intravenous therapy should not routinely exceed 14 days. In clinical trials, most children received a course of oral antimicrobials following initial treatment with intravenous ampicillin and sulbactam for injection. (See CLINICAL STUDIES section.)
Impaired Renal Function
In patients with impairment of renal function the elimination kinetics of ampicillin and sulbactam are similarly affected, hence the ratio of one to the other will remain constant whatever the renal function. The dose of ampicillin and sulbactam for injection in such patients should be administered less frequently in accordance with the usual practice for ampicillin and according to the following recommendations:
|Ampicillin and Sulbactam for Injection Dosage Guide for Patients with Renal Impairment|
|Creatinine Clearance (mL/min/1.73 m2 )||Ampicillin/Sulbactam Half-Life (Hours)||Recommended Ampicillin and Sulbactam for Injection Dosage|
|≥ 30||1||1.5 to 3 grams q 6 h to q 8 h|
|15 to 29||5||1.5 to 3 grams q 12 h|
|5 to 14||9||1.5 to 3 grams q 24 h|
When only serum creatinine is available, the following formula (based on sex, weight, and age of the patient) may be used to convert this value into creatinine clearance. The serum creatinine should represent a steady state of renal function.
|Males||weight (kg) × (140 — age)72 × serum creatinine|
|Females||0.85 × above value|
COMPATIBILITY, RECONSTITUTION AND STABILITY
Ampicillin and sulbactam for injection sterile powder is to be stored at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature] prior to reconstitution.
When concomitant therapy with aminoglycosides is indicated, ampicillin and sulbactam for injection and aminoglycosides should be reconstituted and administered separately, due to the in vitro inactivation of aminoglycosides by any of the aminopenicillins.
DIRECTIONS FOR USE
General Dissolution Procedures
Ampicillin and sulbactam for injection sterile powder for intravenous and intramuscular use may be reconstituted with any of the compatible diluents described in this insert. Solutions should be allowed to stand after dissolution to allow any foaming to dissipate in order to permit visual inspection for complete solubilization.
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