Anagrelide

ANAGRELIDE- anagrelide hydrochloride capsule
Torrent Pharmaceuticals Limited

1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE

Anagrelide capsules are indicated for the treatment of patients with thrombocythemia, secondary to myeloproliferative neoplasms, to reduce the elevated platelet count and the risk of thrombosis and to ameliorate associated symptoms including thrombo-hemorrhagic events.

2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

2.1 Starting Dose

Adults: The recommended starting dosage of anagrelide capsules is 0.5 mg four times daily or 1 mg twice daily.

Pediatric Patients: The recommended starting dosage of anagrelide capsules is 0.5 mg daily.

2.2 Dose Titration Based Upon Platelet Response

Continue the starting dose for at least one week and then titrate to reduce and maintain the platelet count below 600,000/μL, and ideally between 150,000/μL and 400,000/μL. The dose increment should not exceed 0.5 mg/day in any one week. Dosage should not exceed 10 mg/day or 2.5 mg in a single dose. Most patients will experience an adequate response at a dose of 1.5 to 3.0 mg/day. Monitor platelet counts weekly during titration then monthly or as necessary.

2.3 Dose Modifications for Hepatic Impairment

In patients with moderate hepatic impairment (Child Pugh score 7 to 9) start anagrelide capsules therapy at a dose of 0.5 mg/day and monitor frequently for cardiovascular events [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1), Use in Specific Populations (8.6) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Patients with moderate hepatic impairment who have tolerated anagrelide capsules therapy for one week may have their dose increased. The dose increase increment should not exceed 0.5 mg/day in any one week. Avoid use of anagrelide capsules in patients with severe hepatic impairment.

2.4 Clinical Monitoring

Anagrelide capsules therapy requires clinical monitoring, including complete blood counts, assessment of hepatic and renal function, and electrolytes.

To prevent the occurrence of thrombocytopenia, monitor platelet counts every two days during the first week of treatment and at least weekly thereafter until the maintenance dosage is reached. Typically, platelet counts begin to respond within 7 to 14 days at the proper dosage. In the clinical trials, the time to complete response, defined as platelet count ≤600,000/μL, ranged from 4 to 12 weeks. In the event of dosage interruption or treatment withdrawal, the rebound in platelet count is variable, but platelet counts typically will start to rise within 4 days and return to baseline levels in one to two weeks, possibly rebounding above baseline values. Monitor platelet counts frequently.

3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS

Anagrelide capsules, USP 0.5 mg are Size ‘4’, hard gelatin capsule having grey opaque cap and white opaque body, imprinted ‘1453’ on cap and ‘0.5 mg’ on body with black ink containing white to off-white powder.

Anagrelide capsules, USP 1 mg are Size ‘3’, hard gelatin capsule having white opaque cap and white opaque body, imprinted ‘1462’ on cap and ‘1 mg’ on body with black ink containing white to off-white powder.

4 CONTRAINDICATIONS

None.

5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

5.1 Cardiovascular Toxicity

Torsades de pointes and ventricular tachycardia have been reported with anagrelide. Obtain a pre-treatment cardiovascular examination including an ECG in all patients. During treatment with anagrelide monitor patients for cardiovascular effects and evaluate as necessary.

Anagrelide increases the QTc interval of the electrocardiogram and increases the heart rate in healthy volunteers [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.2)].

Do not use anagrelide in patients with known risk factors for QT interval prolongation, such as congenital long QT syndrome, a known history of acquired QTc prolongation, medicinal products that can prolong QTc interval and hypokalemia [see Drug Interactions (7.1)].

Hepatic impairment increases anagrelide exposure and could increase the risk of QTc prolongation. Monitor patients with hepatic impairment for QTc prolongation and other cardiovascular adverse reactions. The potential risks and benefits of anagrelide therapy in a patient with mild and moderate hepatic impairment should be assessed before treatment is commenced. Reduce anagrelide dose in patients with moderate hepatic impairment. Avoid use of anagrelide in patients with severe hepatic impairment.

In patients with heart failure, bradyarrhythmias, or electrolyte abnormalities, consider periodic monitoring with electrocardiograms [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.2)].

Anagrelide is a phosphodiesterase 3 (PDE3) inhibitor and may cause vasodilation, tachycardia, palpitations, and congestive heart failure. Other drugs that inhibit PDE3 have caused decreased survival when compared with placebo in patients with Class III-IV congestive heart failure [see Drug Interactions (7.2)].

In patients with cardiac disease, use anagrelide only when the benefits outweigh the risks.

5.2 Pulmonary Hypertension

Cases of pulmonary hypertension have been reported in patients treated with anagrelide. Evaluate patients for signs and symptoms of underlying cardiopulmonary disease prior to initiating and during anagrelide therapy [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)].

5.3 Bleeding Risk

Use of concomitant anagrelide and aspirin increased major hemorrhagic events in a postmarketing study. Assess the potential risks and benefits for concomitant use of anagrelide with aspirin, since bleeding risks may be increased. Monitor patients for bleeding, including those receiving concomitant therapy with other drugs known to cause bleeding (e.g., anticoagulants, PDE3 inhibitors, NSAIDs, antiplatelet agents, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors) [see Drug Interactions (7.3), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

5.4 Pulmonary Toxicity

Interstitial lung diseases (including allergic alveolitis, eosinophilic pneumonia and interstitial pneumonitis) have been reported to be associated with the use of anagrelide in post-marketing reports. Most cases presented with progressive dyspnea with lung infiltrations. The time of onset ranged from 1 week to several years after initiating anagrelide. If suspected, discontinue anagrelide and evaluate. Symptoms may improve after discontinuation [see Adverse Reactions (6)].

6 ADVERSE REACTIONS

The following clinically significant adverse reactions are discussed in greater detail in other sections of the labeling:

  • Cardiovascular Toxicity [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]
  • Pulmonary Hypertension [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]
  • Bleeding Risk [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]
  • Pulmonary Toxicity [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)]

6.1 Clinical Trials Experience

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.

Clinical Studies in Adult Patients

In three single-arm clinical studies, 942 patients [see Clinical Trials (14)] diagnosed with myeloproliferative neoplasms of varying etiology (ET: 551; PV: 117; OMPN: 274) were exposed to anagrelide with a mean duration of approximately 65 weeks. Serious adverse reactions reported in these patients included the following: congestive heart failure, myocardial infarction, cardiomyopathy, cardiomegaly, complete heart block, atrial fibrillation, cerebrovascular accident, pericardial effusion [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)] , pleural effusion, pulmonary infiltrates, pulmonary fibrosis, pulmonary hypertension, and pancreatitis. Of the 942 patients treated with anagrelide, 161 (17%) were discontinued from the study because of adverse reactions or abnormal laboratory test results. The most common adverse reactions for treatment discontinuation were headache, diarrhea, edema, palpitations, and abdominal pain.

The most frequently reported adverse reactions to anagrelide (in 5% or greater of 942 patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms) in clinical trials were listed in Table 1.

Table1: Adverse Reactions Reported in Clinical Studies in at least 5% of Patients
Adverse reactions Anagrelide
(N=942)
(%)
Cardiac disorders
Palpitations 26%
Tachycardia 8%
Chest pain 8%
General disorders and administration site conditions
Asthenia 23%
Edema 21%
Pain 15%
Fever 9%
Peripheral edema 9%
Malaise 6%
Gastrointestinal disorders
Diarrhea 26%
Nausea 17%
Abdominal pain 16%
Vomiting 10%
Flatulence 10%
Anorexia 8%
Dyspepsia 5%
Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders
Dyspnea 12%
Cough 6%
Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders
Rash 8%
Pruritus 6%
Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders
Back pain 6%
Nervous system disorders
Headache 44%
Dizziness 15%
Paresthesia 6%

Adverse Reactions (frequency 1% to <5%) included:

General disorders and administration site conditions: Flu symptoms, chills.

Cardiac disorders: Arrhythmia, angina pectoris, heart failure, syncope.

Vascular disorders: Hemorrhage, hypertension, postural hypotension, vasodilatation.

Gastrointestinal disorders: Constipation, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, gastritis.

Blood and lymphatic system disorders: Anemia, thrombocytopenia, ecchymosis.

Hepatobiliary disorders: Elevated liver enzymes.

Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders: Arthralgia, myalgia.

Psychiatric disorders: Depression, confusion, nervousness.

Nervous system disorders: Somnolence, insomnia, amnesia, migraine headache.

Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders: Epistaxis, pneumonia.

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders: Alopecia.

Eye disorders: Abnormal vision, diplopia.

Ear and labyrinth disorders: Tinnitus

Renal and urinary disorders: Hematuria, renal failure.

Other less frequent adverse reactions (<1%) were:

Cardiac disorders: Ventricular tachycardia, supraventricular tachycardia.

Nervous system disorders: Hypoesthesia.

Clinical Study in Pediatric Patients

The frequency of adverse events observed in pediatric patients was similar to adult patients. The most common adverse events observed in pediatric patients were fever, epistaxis, headache, and fatigue during the 3-month anagrelide treatment in the study. Episodes of increased pulse and decreased systolic or diastolic blood pressure beyond the normal ranges in the absence of clinical symptoms were observed. Other adverse reactions that had been reported in these pediatric patients receiving anagrelide treatment based on retrospective review were; palpitations, headache, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, back pain, anorexia, fatigue, and muscle cramps.

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