Anastrozole (Page 3 of 8)
Pharmacokinetics in Pediatric Patients
Following 1 mg once daily multiple administration in pediatric patients, the mean time to reach the maximum anastrozole concentration was 1 hr. The mean (range) disposition parameters of anastrozole in pediatric patients were described by a CL/F of 1.54 L/h (0.77 to 4.53 L/h) and V/F of 98.4 L (50.7 to 330.0 L). The terminal elimination half-life was 46.8 h, which was similar to that observed in postmenopausal women treated with anastrozole for breast cancer. Based on a population pharmacokinetic analysis, the pharmacokinetics of anastrozole was similar in boys with pubertal gynecomastia and girls with McCune-Albright Syndrome.
8.5 Geriatric Use
In studies 0030 and 0027, about 50% of patients were 65 or older. Patients ≥65 years of age had moderately better tumor response and time to tumor progression than patients <65 years of age regardless of randomized treatment. In studies 0004 and 0005, 50% of patients were 65 or older. Response rates and time to progression were similar for the over 65 and younger patients.
In the ATAC study, 45% of patients were 65 years of age or older. The efficacy of anastrozole compared to tamoxifen in patients who were 65 years or older (N=1413 for anastrozole and N=1410 for tamoxifen, the hazard ratio for disease-free survival was 0.93 [95% CI: 0.80, 1.08]) was less than efficacy observed in patients who were less than 65 years of age (N=1712 for anastrozole and N=1706 for tamoxifen, the hazard ratio for disease-free survival was 0.79 [95% CI: 0.67, 0.94]).
The pharmacokinetics of anastrozole are not affected by age.
8.6 Renal Impairment
Since only about 10% of anastrozole is excreted unchanged in the urine, the renal impairment does not influence the total body clearance. Dosage adjustment in patients with renal impairment is not necessary [see Dosage and Administration (2.1) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
8.7 Hepatic Impairment
The plasma anastrozole concentrations in the subjects with hepatic cirrhosis were within the range of concentrations seen in normal subjects across all clinical trials. Therefore, dosage adjustment is also not necessary in patients with stable hepatic cirrhosis. Anastrozole has not been studied in patients with severe hepatic impairment [see Dosage and Administration (2.2) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Clinical trials have been conducted with anastrozole, up to 60 mg in a single dose given to healthy male volunteers and up to 10 mg daily given to postmenopausal women with advanced breast cancer; these dosages were tolerated. A single dose of anastrozole that results in life-threatening symptoms has not been established. There is no specific antidote to overdosage and treatment must be symptomatic. In the management of an overdose, consider that multiple agents may have been taken. Vomiting may be induced if the patient is alert. Dialysis may be helpful because anastrozole is not highly protein bound. General supportive care, including frequent monitoring of vital signs and close observation of the patient, is indicated.
Anastrozole Tablets, USP for oral administration contain 1 mg of anastrozole, USP, a non-steroidal aromatase inhibitor. It is chemically described as 1,3-Benzenediacetonitrile, α, α, α’, α’-tetramethyl-5-(1H -1,2,4-triazol-1-ylmethyl). Its structural formula is:
C17 H19 N5 M.W. 293.37
Anastrozole, USP is a white to off-white crystalline powder. Anastrozole, USP has moderate aqueous solubility (0.5 mg/mL at 25°C), is freely soluble in methanol, acetone, ethanol, and tetrahydrofuran, and very soluble in acetonitrile.
Each tablet contains as inactive ingredients: hypromellose, lactose monohydrate, polyethylene glycol 400, polyethylene glycol 6000, magnesium stearate, povidone, sodium starch glycolate and titanium dioxide.
12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY
12.1 Mechanism of Action
The growth of many cancers of the breast is stimulated or maintained by estrogens.
In postmenopausal women, estrogens are mainly derived from the action of the aromatase enzyme, which converts adrenal androgens (primarily androstenedione and testosterone) to estrone and estradiol. The suppression of estrogen biosynthesis in peripheral tissues and in the cancer tissue itself can therefore be achieved by specifically inhibiting the aromatase enzyme.
Anastrozole is a selective non-steroidal aromatase inhibitor. It significantly lowers serum estradiol concentrations and has no detectable effect on formation of adrenal corticosteroids or aldosterone.
Effect on Estradiol
Mean serum concentrations of estradiol were evaluated in multiple daily dosing trials with 0.5, 1, 3, 5, and 10 mg of anastrozole in postmenopausal women with advanced breast cancer. Clinically significant suppression of serum estradiol was seen with all doses. Doses of 1 mg and higher resulted in suppression of mean serum concentrations of estradiol to the lower limit of detection (3.7 pmol/L). The recommended daily dose, anastrozole 1 mg, reduced estradiol by approximately 70% within 24 hours and by approximately 80% after 14 days of daily dosing. Suppression of serum estradiol was maintained for up to 6 days after cessation of daily dosing with anastrozole 1 mg.
The effect of anastrozole in premenopausal women with early or advanced breast cancer has not been studied. Because aromatization of adrenal androgens is not a significant source of estradiol in premenopausal women, anastrozole would not be expected to lower estradiol levels in premenopausal women.
Effect on Corticosteroids
In multiple daily dosing trials with 3, 5, and 10 mg, the selectivity of anastrozole was assessed by examining effects on corticosteroid synthesis. For all doses, anastrozole did not affect cortisol or aldosterone secretion at baseline or in response to ACTH. No glucocorticoid or mineralocorticoid replacement therapy is necessary with anastrozole.
Other Endocrine Effects
In multiple daily dosing trials with 5 and 10 mg, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was measured; there was no increase in TSH during the administration of anastrozole. Anastrozole does not possess direct progestogenic, androgenic, or estrogenic activity in animals, but does perturb the circulating levels of progesterone, androgens, and estrogens.
Inhibition of aromatase activity is primarily due to anastrozole, the parent drug. Absorption of anastrozole is rapid and maximum plasma concentrations typically occur within 2 hours of dosing under fasted conditions. Studies with radiolabeled drug have demonstrated that orally administered anastrozole is well absorbed into the systemic circulation. Food reduces the rate but not the overall extent of anastrozole absorption. The mean Cmax of anastrozole decreased by 16% and the median Tmax was delayed from 2 to 5 hours when anastrozole was administered 30 minutes after food. The pharmacokinetics of anastrozole are linear over the dose range of 1 to 20 mg, and do not change with repeated dosing. The pharmacokinetics of anastrozole were similar in patients and healthy volunteers.
Steady-state plasma levels are approximately 3- to 4-fold higher than levels observed after a single dose of anastrozole. Plasma concentrations approach steady-state levels at about 7 days of once daily dosing. Anastrozole is 40% bound to plasma proteins in the therapeutic range.
Metabolism of anastrozole occurs by N-dealkylation, hydroxylation and glucuronidation. Three metabolites of anastrozole (triazole, a glucuronide conjugate of hydroxy-anastrozole, and a glucuronide conjugate of anastrozole itself) have been identified in human plasma and urine. The major circulating metabolite of anastrozole, triazole, lacks pharmacologic activity.
Anastrozole inhibited reactions catalyzed by cytochrome P450 1A2, 2C8/9, and 3A4 in vitro with Ki values which were approximately 30 times higher than the mean steady-state Cmax values observed following a 1 mg daily dose. Anastrozole had no inhibitory effect on reactions catalyzed by cytochrome P450 2A6 or 2D6 in vitro. Administration of a single 30 mg/kg or multiple 10 mg/kg doses of anastrozole to healthy subjects had no effect on the clearance of antipyrine or urinary recovery of antipyrine metabolites.
Eighty-five percent of radiolabeled anastrozole was recovered in feces and urine. Hepatic metabolism accounts for approximately 85% of anastrozole elimination. Renal elimination accounts for approximately 10% of total clearance. The mean elimination half-life of anastrozole is 50 hours.
Effect of Gender and Age
Anastrozole pharmacokinetics have been investigated in postmenopausal female volunteers and patients with breast cancer. No age-related effects were seen over the range <50 to >80 years.
Effect of Race
Estradiol and estrone sulfate serum levels were similar between Japanese and Caucasian postmenopausal women who received 1 mg of anastrozole daily for 16 days. Anastrozole mean steady-state minimum plasma concentrations in Caucasian and Japanese postmenopausal women were 25.7 and 30.4 ng/mL, respectively.
Effect of Renal Impairment
Anastrozole pharmacokinetics have been investigated in subjects with renal impairment. Anastrozole renal clearance decreased proportionally with creatinine clearance and was approximately 50% lower in volunteers with severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance <30 mL/min/1.73m2) compared to controls. Total clearance was only reduced 10%. No dosage adjustment is needed for renal impairment [see Dosage and Administration (2.1) and Use in Specific Populations (8.6)].
Effect of Hepatic Impairment
Anastrozole pharmacokinetics have been investigated in subjects with hepatic cirrhosis related to alcohol abuse. The apparent oral clearance (CL/F) of anastrozole was approximately 30% lower in subjects with stable hepatic cirrhosis than in control subjects with normal liver function. However, these plasma concentrations were still with the range of values observed in normal subjects. The effect of severe hepatic impairment was not studied. No dose adjustment is necessary for stable hepatic cirrhosis [see Dosage and Administration (2.2) and Use in Specific Populations (8.7)].
All MedLibrary.org resources are included in as near-original form as possible, meaning that the information from the original provider has been rendered here with only typographical or stylistic modifications and not with any substantive alterations of content, meaning or intent.