The following adverse reactions have been identified during post approval use of fenofibrate. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure: myalgia, rhabdomyolysis, pancreatitis, renal failure, muscle spasms, acute renal failure, hepatitis, cirrhosis, increased total bilirubin, anemia, arthralgia, asthenia, severely depressed HDL-cholesterol levels, and interstitial lung disease. Photosensitivity reactions have occurred days to months after initiation; in some of these cases, patients reported a prior photosensitivity reaction to ketoprofen.
Caution should be exercised when coumarin anticoagulants are given in conjunction with Antara. The dosage of the anticoagulants should be reduced to maintain the PT/INR at the desired level to prevent bleeding complications. Frequent PT/INR determinations are advisable until it has been definitely determined that the PT/INR has stabilized [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6) ].
Immunosuppressants such as cyclosporine and tacrolimus can produce nephrotoxicity with decrease in creatinine clearance and because renal excretion is the primary elimination route of fibrate drugs including Antara, there is a risk that an interaction will lead to deterioration of renal function. The benefits and risks of using Antara with immunosuppressants and other potentially nephrotoxic agents should be carefully considered, and the lowest effective dose employed.
Since bile acid binding resins may bind other drugs given concurrently, patients should take Antara at least 1 hour before or 4 to 6 hours after a bile acid binding resin to avoid impeding its absorption.
Safety in pregnant women has not been established. There are no adequate and well controlled studies of fenofibrate in pregnant women. Fenofibrate should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
In female rats given oral dietary doses of 15, 75, and 300 mg/kg/day of fenofibrate from 15 days prior to mating through weaning, maternal toxicity was observed at 0.3 times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD), based on body surface area comparisons; mg/m2.
In pregnant rats given oral dietary doses of 14, 127, and 361 mg/kg/day from gestation day 6-15 during the period of organogenesis, adverse developmental findings were not observed at 14 mg/kg/day (less than 1 times the MRHD, based on body surface area comparisons; mg/m2). At higher multiples of human doses, evidence of maternal toxicity was observed.
In pregnant rabbits given oral gavage doses of 15, 150, and 300 mg/kg/day from gestation day 6 to 18 during the period of organogenesis and allowed to deliver, aborted litters were observed at 150 mg/kg/day (10 times the MRHD, based on body surface area comparisons: mg/m2). No developmental findings were observed at 15 mg/kg/day (at less than 1 times the MRHD, based on body surface area comparisons; mg/m2).
In pregnant rats given oral dietary doses of 15, 75, and 300 mg/kg/day from gestation day 15 through lactation day 21 (weaning), maternal toxicity was observed at less than 1 times the MRHD, based on body surface area comparisons; mg/m2.
Fenofibric acid is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of adverse reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Fenofibric acid exposure is not influenced by age. Since elderly patients have a higher incidence of renal impairment, dose selection for the elderly should be made on the basis of renal function [see Dosage and Administration (2.5) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ]. Elderly patients with normal renal function should require no dose modifications. Consider monitoring renal function in elderly patients taking Antara.
Fenofibrate should be avoided in patients with severe renal impairment [see Contraindications (4) ]. Dose reduction is required in patients with mild to moderate renal impairment [see Dosage and Administration (2.4) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ]. Monitoring renal function in patients with renal impairment is recommended.
There is no specific treatment for overdose with Antara. General supportive care of the patient is indicated, including monitoring of vital signs and observation of clinical status, should an overdose occur. If indicated, elimination of unabsorbed drug should be achieved by emesis or gastric lavage; usual precautions should be observed to maintain the airway. Because fenofibrate is highly bound to plasma proteins, hemodialysis should not be considered.
Antara (fenofibrate) Capsules, is a lipid regulating agent available as capsules for oral administration. Each capsule contains 30 mg or 90 mg of micronized fenofibrate. The chemical name for fenofibrate is 2-[4-(4-chlorobenzoyl) phenoxy] 2-methyl-propanoic acid, l-methylethyl ester with the following structural formula:
The empirical formula is C20 H21 O4 Cl and the molecular weight is 360.83; fenofibrate is insoluble in water. The melting point is 79°-82°C. Fenofibrate is a white solid which is stable under ordinary conditions.
Inactive Ingredients: Each gelatin capsule contains hypromellose, simethicone emulsion, sodium lauryl sulphate, sugar spheres and talc. The capsule shell contains the following inactive ingredients: black iron oxide, D & C Yellow 10, potassium hydroxide, propylene glycol, gelatin, shellac, sodium lauryl sulphate, titanium dioxide. The 30 mg capsule shell contains following additional inactive ingredients: FD & C Blue 2, yellow iron oxide. The 90 mg capsule shell contains following additional inactive ingredients: FD & C Blue 1, FD & C Yellow 6.
The lipid lowering effects of fenofibric acid seen in clinical practice have been explained in vivo in transgenic mice and in vitro in human hepatocyte cultures by the activation of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α (PPARα). Through this mechanism, fenofibrate increases lipolysis and elimination of triglyceride-rich particles from plasma by activating lipoprotein lipase and reducing production of apoprotein C-III (an inhibitor of lipoprotein lipase activity). The resulting decrease in triglycerides produces an alteration in the size and composition of LDL from small, dense particles (which are thought to be atherogenic due to their susceptibility to oxidation), to large buoyant particles. These larger particles have a greater affinity for cholesterol receptors and are catabolized rapidly. Activation of PPARα also induces an increase in the synthesis of apoproteins A-I, A-II and HDL-cholesterol.
Fenofibrate also reduces serum uric acid levels in hyperuricemic and normal individuals by increasing the urinary excretion of uric acid.
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