The following adverse reactions have been identified during postapproval use of APTIOM. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure:
Hematologic and Lymphatic Systems: leukopenia, agranulocytosis, thrombocytopenia, megaloblastic anemia, and pancytopenia [see Warnings and Precautions (5.10)]
Metabolism and Nutrition Disorders: syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)]
Several AEDs (e.g., carbamazepine, phenobarbital, phenytoin, and primidone) can induce enzymes that metabolize APTIOM and can cause decreased plasma concentrations of eslicarbazepine [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Higher doses of Aptiom may be needed [see Dosage and Administration (2.4)].
APTIOM can inhibit CYP2C19, which can cause increased plasma concentrations of drugs that are metabolized by this isoenzyme (e.g., phenytoin, clobazam, and omeprazole) [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Dose adjustment may be needed.
In vivo studies suggest that APTIOM can induce CYP3A4, decreasing plasma concentrations of drugs that are metabolized by this isoenzyme (e.g., simvastatin, lovastatin) [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Dose adjustment of simvastatin and lovastatin may be needed if a clinically significant change in lipids is noted.
Because concomitant use of APTIOM and ethinylestradiol and levonorgestrel is associated with lower plasma levels of these hormones, females of reproductive potential should use additional or alternative non-hormonal birth control.
Pregnancy Exposure Registry
There is a pregnancy exposure registry that monitors pregnancy outcomes in women exposed to AEDs, such as APTIOM, during pregnancy. Encourage women who are taking APTIOM during pregnancy to enroll in the North American Antiepileptic Drug (NAAED) Pregnancy Registry by calling 1-888-233-2334 or visiting http://www.aedpregnancyregistry.org.
Limited available data with APTIOM use in pregnant women are insufficient to inform a drug-associated risk of adverse developmental outcomes. In oral studies conducted in pregnant mice, rats, and rabbits, eslicarbazepine acetate demonstrated developmental toxicity, including increased incidence of malformations (mice), embryolethality (rats), and fetal growth retardation (all species), at clinically relevant doses (see Data). Advise a pregnant woman of the potential risk to a fetus.
In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2-4% and 15-20%, respectively. The background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown.
When eslicarbazepine acetate was orally administered (150, 350, 650 mg/kg/day) to pregnant mice throughout organogenesis, increased incidences of fetal malformations was observed at all doses and fetal growth retardation was observed at the mid and high doses. A no-effect dose for adverse developmental effects was not identified. At the lowest dose tested, plasma eslicarbazepine exposure (Cmax , AUC) is less than that in humans at the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD, 1600 mg/day).
Oral administration of eslicarbazepine acetate (40, 160, 320 mg/kg/day) to pregnant rabbits throughout organogenesis resulted in fetal growth retardation and increased incidences of skeletal variations at the mid and high doses. The no-effect dose (40 mg/kg/day) is less than the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis.
Oral administration to pregnant rats (65, 125, 250 mg/kg/day) throughout organogenesis resulted in embryolethality at all doses, increased incidences of skeletal variations at the mid and high doses, and fetal growth retardation at the high dose. The lowest dose tested (65 mg/kg/day) is less than the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis.
When eslicarbazepine acetate was orally administered to female mice during pregnancy and lactation (150, 350, 650 mg/kg/day), the gestation period was prolonged at the highest dose tested. In offspring, a persistent reduction in offspring body weight and delayed physical development and sexual maturation were observed at the mid and high doses. The lowest dose tested (150 mg/kg/day) is less than the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis.
When eslicarbazepine acetate was orally administered (65, 125, 250 mg/kg/day) to rats during pregnancy and lactation, reduced offspring body weight was seen at the mid and high doses. Delayed sexual maturation and a neurological deficit (decreased motor coordination) were observed at the highest dose tested. The no-effect dose for adverse developmental effects (65 mg/kg/day) is less than the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis.
The rat data are of uncertain relevance to humans because of differences in metabolic profile between species.
Eslicarbazepine is present in human milk. The effects of APTIOM on the breastfed infant or on milk production are unknown. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for APTIOM and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from APTIOM or from the underlying maternal condition.
Use of APTIOM with hormonal contraceptives containing ethinylestradiol or levonorgestrel is associated with lower plasma levels of these hormones. Advise women of reproductive potential taking APTIOM who are using a contraceptive containing ethinylestradiol or levonorgestrel to use additional or alternative non-hormonal birth control [see Drug Interactions (7.4)].
Eslicarbazepine acetate was evaluated in rats and mice for potential adverse impact on fertility of the parental and first generation [see Nonclinical Toxicology (13.1)]. In a fertility study in male and female mice, adverse developmental outcomes were observed in embryos. In a fertility study in male and female rats, impairment of female fertility by eslicarbazepine acetate was shown.
Safety and effectiveness of APTIOM have been established in the age groups 4 to 17 years. Use of APTIOM in these age groups is supported by evidence from adequate and well-controlled studies of APTIOM in adults with partial-onset seizures, pharmacokinetic data from adult and pediatric patients, and safety data from clinical studies in 393 pediatric patients 4 to 17 years of age [see Adverse Reactions (6.1) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients below the age of 4 years have not been established.
In a juvenile animal study in which eslicarbazepine acetate (40, 80, 160 mg/kg/day) was orally administered to young dogs for 10 months starting on postnatal day 21, adverse effects on bone growth (decreased bone mineral content and density) were seen in females at all doses at the end of the dosing period, but not at the end of a 2-month recovery period. Convulsions were seen at the highest dose tested. A no-effect dose for adverse effects in juvenile dogs was not identified. The lowest dose tested is less than the maximum recommended pediatric dose (1200 mg/day) on a body surface area (mg/m2) basis.
A separate juvenile animal study was conducted to assess possible adverse effects on the immune system. Eslicarbazepine acetate (10, 40, 80 mg/kg/day) was orally administered to young dogs for 17 weeks starting on postnatal day 21. No effects on the immune system were observed.
There were insufficient numbers of patients ≥65 years old enrolled in the controlled adjunctive epilepsy trials (N=15) to determine the efficacy of APTIOM in this patient population. The pharmacokinetics of APTIOM were evaluated in elderly healthy subjects (N=12) (Figure 1). Although the pharmacokinetics of eslicarbazepine are not affected by age independently, dose selection should take in consideration the greater frequency of renal impairment and other concomitant medical conditions and drug therapies in the elderly patient. Dose adjustment is necessary if CrCl is <50 mL/min [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
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