Limited data from published literature report the presence of aripiprazole in human breast milk, at relative infant doses ranging between 0.7% to 8.3% of the maternal weight-adjusted dosage. There are reports of poor weight gain in breastfed infants exposed to aripiprazole and reports of inadequate milk supply in lactating women taking aripiprazole. The development and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for aripiprazole and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from aripiprazole or from the underlying maternal condition.
The pharmacokinetics of aripiprazole and dehydro-aripiprazole in pediatric patients, 10 to 17 years of age, were similar to those in adults after correcting for the differences in body weight [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients with schizophrenia were established in a 6-week, placebo-controlled clinical trial in 202 pediatric patients aged 13 to 17 years [see Dosage and Administration (2.1), Adverse Reactions (6.1), and Clinical Studies (14.1)]. Although maintenance efficacy in pediatric patients has not been systematically evaluated, maintenance efficacy can be extrapolated from adult data along with comparisons of aripiprazole pharmacokinetic parameters in adult and pediatric patients.
Information describing a clinical study in which efficacy was not demonstrated in patients ages 6 to 17 years is approved for Otsuka America Pharmaceutical, Inc.’s ABILIFY® (aripiprazole). Additional pediatric use information in patients ages 6 to 18 years is approved for Otsuka America Pharmaceutical, Inc.’s ABILIFY® (aripiprazole) product. However, due to Otsuka America Pharmaceutical, Inc.’s marketing exclusivity rights, this drug product is not labeled with that pediatric information.
Juvenile Animal Studies
Aripiprazole in juvenile rats caused mortality, CNS clinical signs, impaired memory and learning, and delayed sexual maturation when administered at oral doses of 10, 20, 40 mg/kg/day from weaning (21 days old) through maturity (80 days old). At 40 mg/kg/day, mortality, decreased activity, splayed hind limbs, hunched posture, ataxia, tremors and other CNS signs were observed in both genders. In addition, delayed sexual maturation was observed in males. At all doses and in a dose-dependent manner, impaired memory and learning, increased motor activity, and histopathology changes in the pituitary (atrophy), adrenals (adrenocortical hypertrophy), mammary glands (hyperplasia and increased secretion), and female reproductive organs (vaginal mucification, endometrial atrophy, decrease in ovarian corpora lutea) were observed. The changes in female reproductive organs were considered secondary to the increase in prolactin serum levels. A No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) could not be determined and, at the lowest tested dose of 10 mg/kg/day, there is no safety margin relative to the systemic exposures (AUC0 to 24 ) for aripiprazole or its major active metabolite in adolescents at the maximum recommended pediatric dose of 15 mg/day. All drug-related effects were reversible after a 2-month recovery period, and most of the drug effects in juvenile rats were also observed in adult rats from previously conducted studies.
Aripiprazole in juvenile dogs (2 months old) caused CNS clinical signs of tremors, hypoactivity, ataxia, recumbency and limited use of hind limbs when administered orally for 6 months at 3, 10, 30 mg/kg/day. Mean body weight and weight gain were decreased up to 18% in females in all drug groups relative to control values. A NOAEL could not be determined and, at the lowest tested dose of 3 mg/kg/day, there is no safety margin relative to the systemic exposures (AUC0 to 24 ) for aripiprazole or its major active metabolite in adolescents at the maximum recommended pediatric dose of 15 mg/day. All drug-related effects were reversible after a 2-month recovery period.
No dosage adjustment is recommended for elderly patients [see Boxed Warning, Warnings and Precautions (5.1), and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Of the 13,543 patients treated with oral aripiprazole in clinical trials, 1073 (8%) were ≥65 years old and 799 (6%) were ≥75 years old. Placebo-controlled studies of oral aripiprazole in schizophrenia or other indications did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects.
Aripiprazole is not approved for the treatment of patients with psychosis associated with Alzheimer’s disease [see Boxed Warning and Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
Dosage adjustment is recommended in known CYP2D6 poor metabolizers due to high aripiprazole concentrations. Approximately 8% of Caucasians and 3 to 8% of Black/African Americans cannot metabolize CYP2D6 substrates and are classified as poor metabolizers (PM) [see Dosage and Administration (2.7) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
No dosage adjustment for aripiprazole is required on the basis of a patient’s hepatic function (mild to severe hepatic impairment, Child-Pugh score between 5 and 15), or renal function (mild to severe renal impairment, glomerular filtration rate between 15 and 90 mL/minute) [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
No dosage adjustment for aripiprazole is required on the basis of a patient’s sex, race, or smoking status [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Aripiprazole is not a controlled substance.
Aripiprazole has not been systematically studied in humans for its potential for abuse, tolerance, or physical dependence. Consequently, patients should be evaluated carefully for a history of drug abuse, and such patients should be observed closely for signs of aripiprazole misuse or abuse (e.g., development of tolerance, increases in dose, drug-seeking behavior).
In physical dependence studies in monkeys, withdrawal symptoms were observed upon abrupt cessation of dosing. While the clinical trials did not reveal any tendency for any drug-seeking behavior, these observations were not systematic and it is not possible to predict on the basis of this limited experience the extent to which a CNS-active drug will be misused, diverted, and/or abused once marketed.
MedDRA terminology has been used to classify the adverse reactions.
In clinical trials and in postmarketing experience, adverse reactions of deliberate or accidental overdosage with oral aripiprazole have been reported worldwide. These include overdoses with oral aripiprazole alone and in combination with other substances. No fatality was reported with aripiprazole alone. The largest known dose with a known outcome involved acute ingestion of 1260 mg of oral aripiprazole (42 times the maximum recommended daily dose) by a patient who fully recovered. Deliberate or accidental overdosage was also reported in children (age 12 and younger) involving oral aripiprazole tablet ingestions up to 195 mg with no fatalities. Common adverse reactions (reported in at least 5% of all overdose cases) reported with oral aripiprazole overdosage (alone or in combination with other substances) include vomiting, somnolence, and tremor. Other clinically important signs and symptoms observed in one or more patients with aripiprazole overdoses (alone or with other substances) include acidosis, aggression, aspartate aminotransferase increased, atrial fibrillation, bradycardia, coma, confusional state, convulsion, blood creatine phosphokinase increased, depressed level of consciousness, hypertension, hypokalemia, hypotension, lethargy, loss of consciousness, QRS complex prolonged, QT prolonged, pneumonia aspiration, respiratory arrest, status epilepticus, and tachycardia.
No specific information is available on the treatment of overdose with aripiprazole. An electrocardiogram should be obtained in case of overdosage and if QT interval prolongation is present, cardiac monitoring should be instituted. Otherwise, management of overdose should concentrate on supportive therapy, maintaining an adequate airway, oxygenation and ventilation, and management of symptoms. Close medical supervision and monitoring should continue until the patient recovers.
Charcoal: In the event of an overdose of aripiprazole, an early charcoal administration may be useful in partially preventing the absorption of aripiprazole. Administration of 50 g of activated charcoal, one hour after a single 15 mg oral dose of aripiprazole, decreased the mean AUC and Cmax of aripiprazole by 50%.
Hemodialysis: Although there is no information on the effect of hemodialysis in treating an overdose with aripiprazole, hemodialysis is unlikely to be useful in overdose management since aripiprazole is highly bound to plasma proteins.
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