Aripiprazole (Page 5 of 12)

6.1 Clinical Trials Experience

Adult Patients with Schizophrenia
The following findings are based on a pool of five placebo-controlled trials (four 4-week and one 6-week) in which oral aripiprazole was administered in doses ranging from 2 to 30 mg/day.

Commonly Observed Adverse Reactions

The only commonly observed adverse reaction associated with the use of aripiprazole in patients with schizophrenia (incidence of 5% or greater and aripiprazole incidence at least twice that for placebo) was akathisia (aripiprazole 8%; placebo 4%).
Less Common Adverse Reactions in Adults Table 17 enumerates the pooled incidence, rounded to the nearest percent, of adverse reactions that occurred during acute therapy (up to 6 weeks in schizophrenia and up to 3 weeks in another indication), including only those reactions that occurred in 2% or more of patients treated with aripiprazole (doses ≥2 mg/day) and for which the incidence in patients treated with aripiprazole was greater than the incidence in patients treated with placebo in the combined dataset.

Table 17: Adverse Reactions in Short-Term, Placebo-Controlled Trials in Adult Patients Treated with Oral Aripiprazole
System Organ Class Preferred Term Percentage of Patients Reporting Reaction*
Aripiprazole (n=1843) Placebo (n=1166)
* Adverse reactions reported by at least 2% of patients treated with oral aripiprazole, except adverse reactions which had an incidence equal to or less than placebo.
Eye Disorders Blurred Vision 3 1
Gastrointestinal Disorders Nausea Constipation Vomiting Dyspepsia Dry Mouth Toothache Abdominal Discomfort Stomach Discomfort 15111195433 117674322
General Disorders and Administration Site Conditions Fatigue Pain 63 42
Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue Disorders Musculoskeletal Stiffness Pain in Extremity Myalgia Muscle Spasms 4422 3211
Nervous System Disorders Headache Dizziness Akathisia Sedation Extrapyramidal Disorder Tremor Somnolence 2710107555 23744333
Psychiatric Disorders Agitation Insomnia Anxiety Restlessness 1918175 1713133
Respiratory, Thoracic, and Mediastinal Disorders Pharyngolaryngeal Pain Cough 33 22

An examination of population subgroups did not reveal any clear evidence of differential adverse reaction incidence on the basis of age, gender, or race.
Pediatric Patients (13 to 17 years) with Schizophrenia
The following findings are based on one 6-week, placebo-controlled trial in which oral aripiprazole was administered in doses ranging from 2 to 30 mg/day.

Adverse Reactions Associated with Discontinuation of Treatment

The incidence of discontinuation due to adverse reactions between aripiprazole-treated and placebo-treated pediatric patients (13 to 17 years) was 5% and 2%, respectively.

Commonly Observed Adverse Reactions

Commonly observed adverse reactions associated with the use of aripiprazole in adolescent patients with schizophrenia (incidence of 5% or greater and aripiprazole incidence at least twice that for placebo) were extrapyramidal disorder, somnolence, and tremor.
Less Common Adverse Reactions in Pediatric Patients (6 to 18 years) with Schizophrenia, or Other Indications Table 22 enumerates the pooled incidence, rounded to the nearest percent, of adverse reactions that occurred during acute therapy (up to 6 weeks in schizophrenia, up to 4 weeks in one indication, up to 8 weeks in another indication, and up to 10 weeks in another indication), including only those reactions that occurred in 2% or more of pediatric patients treated with aripiprazole (doses ≥2 mg/day) and for which the incidence in patients treated with aripiprazole was greater than the incidence in patients treated with placebo.

Table 22: Adverse Reactions in Short-Term, Placebo-Controlled Trials of Pediatric Patients (6 to 18 years) Treated with Oral Aripiprazole
System Organ Class Preferred Term Percentage of Patients Reporting Reaction*
Aripiprazole (n=732) Placebo (n=370)
* Adverse reactions reported by at least 2% of pediatric patients treated with oral aripiprazole, except adverse reactions which had an incidence equal to or less than placebo.
Eye Disorders Blurred Vision 3 0
Gastrointestinal Disorders Abdominal Discomfort Vomiting Nausea Diarrhea Salivary Hypersecretion Abdominal Pain Upper Constipation 2884432 1743122
General Disorders and Administration Site Conditions Fatigue Pyrexia Irritability Asthenia 10422 2111
Infections and Infestations Nasopharyngitis 6 3
Investigations Weight Increased 3 1
Metabolism and Nutrition Disorders Increased Appetite Decreased Appetite 75 34
Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue Disorders Musculoskeletal Stiffness Muscle Rigidity 22 11
Nervous System Disorders Somnolence Headache Sedation Tremor Extrapyramidal Disorder Akathisia Drooling Lethargy Dizziness Dystonia 161299663332 41021140021
Respiratory, Thoracic, and Mediastinal Disorders Epistaxis 2 1
Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders Rash 2 1

Dose-Related Adverse Reactions

Schizophrenia

Dose response relationships for the incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events were evaluated from four trials in adult patients with schizophrenia comparing various fixed doses (2, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 30 mg/day) of oral aripiprazole to placebo. This analysis, stratified by study, indicated that the only adverse reaction to have a possible dose response relationship, and then most prominent only with 30 mg, was somnolence [including sedation]; (incidences were placebo, 7.1%; 10 mg, 8.5%; 15 mg, 8.7%; 20 mg, 7.5%; 30 mg, 12.6%).
In the study of pediatric patients (13 to 17 years of age) with schizophrenia, three common adverse reactions appeared to have a possible dose response relationship: extrapyramidal disorder (incidences were placebo, 5%; 10 mg, 13%; 30 mg, 21.6%); somnolence (incidences were placebo, 6%; 10 mg, 11%; 30 mg, 21.6%); and tremor (incidences were placebo, 2%; 10 mg, 2%; 30 mg, 11.8%).
Extrapyramidal Symptoms

Schizophrenia

In short-term, placebo-controlled trials in schizophrenia in adults, the incidence of reported EPS-related events, excluding events related to akathisia, for aripiprazole-treated patients was 13% vs. 12% for placebo; and the incidence of akathisia-related events for aripiprazole-treated patients was 8% vs. 4% for placebo. In the short-term, placebo-controlled trial of schizophrenia in pediatric patients (13 to 17 years), the incidence of reported EPS-related events, excluding events related to akathisia, for aripiprazole-treated patients was 25% vs. 7% for placebo; and the incidence of akathisia-related events for aripiprazole-treated patients was 9% vs. 6% for placebo.
Objectively collected data from those trials was collected on the Simpson Angus Rating Scale (for EPS), the Barnes Akathisia Scale (for akathisia), and the Assessments of Involuntary Movement Scales (for dyskinesias). In the adult schizophrenia trials, the objectively collected data did not show a difference between aripiprazole and placebo, with the exception of the Barnes Akathisia Scale (aripiprazole, 0.08; placebo, -0.05). In the pediatric (13 to 17 years) schizophrenia trial, the objectively collected data did not show a difference between aripiprazole and placebo, with the exception of the Simpson Angus Rating Scale (aripiprazole, 0.24; placebo, -0.29).
Similarly, in a long-term (26-week), placebo-controlled trial of schizophrenia in adults, objectively collected data on the Simpson Angus Rating Scale (for EPS), the Barnes Akathisia Scale (for akathisia), and the Assessments of Involuntary Movement Scales (for dyskinesias) did not show a difference between aripiprazole and placebo.
Dystonia
Symptoms of dystonia, prolonged abnormal contractions of muscle groups, may occur in susceptible individuals during the first few days of treatment. Dystonic symptoms include: spasm of the neck muscles, sometimes progressing to tightness of the throat, swallowing difficulty, difficulty breathing, and/or protrusion of the tongue. While these symptoms can occur at low doses, they occur more frequently and with greater severity with high potency and at higher doses of first generation antipsychotic drugs. An elevated risk of acute dystonia is observed in males and younger age groups.
Additional Findings Observed in Clinical Trials

Adverse Reactions in Long-Term, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trials

The adverse reactions reported in a 26-week, double-blind trial comparing oral aripiprazole and placebo in patients with schizophrenia were generally consistent with those reported in the short-term, placebo-controlled trials, except for a higher incidence of tremor [8% (12/153) for aripiprazole vs. 2% (3/153) for placebo]. In this study, the majority of the cases of tremor were of mild intensity (8/12 mild and 4/12 moderate), occurred early in therapy (9/12 ≤49 days), and were of limited duration (7/12 ≤10 days). Tremor infrequently led to discontinuation (<1%) of aripiprazole. In addition, in a long-term (52 week), active-controlled study, the incidence of tremor was 5% (40/859) for aripiprazole.
Other Adverse Reactions Observed During the Premarketing Evaluation of Aripiprazole
The following listing does not include reactions: 1) already listed in previous tables or elsewhere in labeling, 2) for which a drug cause was remote, 3) which were so general as to be uninformative, 4) which were not considered to have significant clinical implications, or 5) which occurred at a rate equal to or less than placebo.
Reactions are categorized by body system according to the following definitions: frequent adverse reactions are those occurring in at least 1/100 patients; infrequent adverse reactions are those occurring in 1/100 to 1/1000 patients; rare reactions are those occurring in fewer than 1/1000 patients:
Adults — Oral Administration
Blood and Lymphatic System Disorders:
rare - thrombocytopenia

Cardiac Disorders:

infrequent — bradycardia, palpitations, rare - atrial flutter, cardio-respiratory arrest, atrioventricular block, atrial fibrillation, angina pectoris, myocardial ischemia, myocardial infarction, cardiopulmonary failure

Eye Disorders:

infrequent - photophobia; rare — diplopia

Gastrointestinal Disorders:

infrequent - gastroesophageal reflux disease

General Disorders and Administration Site Conditions:

frequent - asthenia; infrequent - peripheral edema, chest pain; rare - face edema

Hepatobiliary Disorders:

rare - hepatitis, jaundice

Immune System Disorders:

rare - hypersensitivity

Injury, Poisoning, and Procedural Complications:

infrequent - fall; rare - heat stroke

Investigations:

frequent - weight decreased, infrequent — hepatic enzyme increased, blood glucose increased, blood lactate dehydrogenase increased, gamma glutamyl transferase increased; rare – blood prolactin increased, blood urea increased, blood creatinine increased, blood bilirubin increased, electrocardiogram QT prolonged, glycosylated hemoglobin increased

Metabolism and Nutrition Disorders:

frequent - anorexia; rare — hypokalemia, hyponatremia, hypoglycemia
Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue Disorders:

infrequent — muscular weakness, muscle tightness; rare - rhabdomyolysis, mobility decreased

Nervous System Disorders:

infrequent - parkinsonism, memory impairment, cogwheel rigidity, hypokinesia, bradykinesia; rare – akinesia, myoclonus, coordination abnormal, speech disorder, Grand Mal convulsion; <1/10,000 patients – choreoathetosis

Psychiatric Disorders:

infrequent — aggression, loss of libido, delirium; rare — libido increased, anorgasmia, tic, homicidal ideation, catatonia, sleep walking

Renal and Urinary Disorders:

rare - urinary retention, nocturia

Reproductive System and Breast Disorders:

infrequent - erectile dysfunction; rare - gynaecomastia, menstruation irregular, amenorrhea, breast pain, priapism

Respiratory, Thoracic, and Mediastinal Disorders:

infrequent - nasal congestion, dyspnea

Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders:

infrequent - rash, hyperhidrosis, pruritus, photosensitivity reaction, alopecia; rare — urticaria

Vascular Disorders:

infrequent - hypotension, hypertension
Pediatric Patients — Oral Administration
Most adverse events observed in the pooled database of 1,686 pediatric patients, aged 6 to 18 years, were also observed in the adult population. Additional adverse reactions observed in the pediatric population are listed below.

Eye Disorders

infrequent - oculogyric crisis

Gastrointestinal Disorders:

infrequent -tongue dry, tongue spasm

Investigations:

frequent - blood insulin increased

Nervous System Disorders:

infrequent - sleep talking

Renal and Urinary Disorders

frequent - enuresis

Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders:

infrequent - hirsutism
Additional pediatric use information is approved for Otsuka America Pharmaceutical, Inc.’s ABILIFY® (aripiprazole) product. However, due to Otsuka America Pharmaceutical, Inc.’s marketing exclusivity rights, this drug product is not labeled with that information.

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