Limited data from published literature report the presence of aripiprazole in human breast milk, at relative infant doses ranging between 0.7% to 8.3% of the maternal weight-adjusted dosage. There are reports of poor weight gain in breastfed infants exposed to aripiprazole and reports of inadequate milk supply in lactating women taking aripiprazole.
The development and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for aripiprazole and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from aripiprazole or from the underlying maternal condition.
The pharmacokinetics of aripiprazole and dehydro-aripiprazole in pediatric patients, 10 to 17 years of age, were similar to those in adults after correcting for the differences in body weight [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)] .
Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients with schizophrenia were established in a 6-week, placebo-controlled clinical trial in 202 pediatric patients aged 13 to 17 years [see Dosage and Administration (2.1), Adverse Reactions (6.1), and Clinical Studies (14.1)] . Although maintenance efficacy in pediatric patients has not been systematically evaluated, maintenance efficacy can be extrapolated from adult data along with comparisons of aripiprazole pharmacokinetic parameters in adult and pediatric patients.
Bipolar I Disorder
Although maintenance efficacy in pediatric patients has not been systematically evaluated, maintenance efficacy can be extrapolated from adult data along with comparisons of aripiprazole pharmacokinetic parameters in adult and pediatric patients.
The efficacy of adjunctive aripiprazole with concomitant lithium or valproate in the treatment of manic or mixed episodes in pediatric patients has not been systematically evaluated. However, such efficacy and lack of pharmacokinetic interaction between aripiprazole and lithium or valproate can be extrapolated from adult data, along with comparisons of aripiprazole pharmacokinetic parameters in adult and pediatric patients.
Information describing a clinical study in which efficacy was not demonstrated in patients ages 6 to 17 years is approved for Otsuka America Pharmaceutical, Inc.’s ABILIFY ® (aripiprazole). Additional pediatric use information in patients ages 6 to 18 years is approved for Otsuka America Pharmaceutical, Inc.’s ABILIFY ® (aripiprazole) product. However, due to Otsuka America Pharmaceutical, Inc.’s marketing exclusivity rights, this drug product is not labeled with that pediatric information.
Juvenile Animal Studies
Aripiprazole in juvenile rats caused mortality, CNS clinical signs, impaired memory and learning, and delayed sexual maturation when administered at oral doses of 10, 20, 40 mg/kg/day from weaning (21 days old) through maturity (80 days old). At 40 mg/kg/day, mortality, decreased activity, splayed hind limbs, hunched posture, ataxia, tremors and other CNS signs were observed in both genders. In addition, delayed sexual maturation was observed in males. At all doses and in a dose-dependent manner, impaired memory and learning, increased motor activity, and histopathology changes in the pituitary (atrophy), adrenals (adrenocortical hypertrophy), mammary glands (hyperplasia and increased secretion), and female reproductive organs (vaginal mucification, endometrial atrophy, decrease in ovarian corpora lutea) were observed. The changes in female reproductive organs were considered secondary to the increase in prolactin serum levels. A No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) could not be determined and, at the lowest tested dose of 10 mg/kg/day, there is no safety margin relative to the systemic exposures (AUC 0-24 ) for aripiprazole or its major active metabolite in adolescents at the maximum recommended pediatric dose of 15 mg/day. All drug-related effects were reversible after a 2-month recovery period, and most of the drug effects in juvenile rats were also observed in adult rats from previously conducted studies.
Aripiprazole in juvenile dogs (2 months old) caused CNS clinical signs of tremors, hypoactivity, ataxia, recumbency and limited use of hind limbs when administered orally for 6 months at 3, 10, 30 mg/kg/day. Mean body weight and weight gain were decreased up to 18% in females in all drug groups relative to control values. A NOAEL could not be determined and, at the lowest tested dose of 3 mg/kg/day, there is no safety margin relative to the systemic exposures (AUC 0-24 ) for aripiprazole or its major active metabolite in adolescents at the maximum recommended pediatric dose of 15 mg/day. All drug-related effects were reversible after a 2-month recovery period.
Of the 13,543 patients treated with oral aripiprazole in clinical trials, 1073 (8%) were ≥65 years old and 799 (6%) were ≥75 years old. Placebo-controlled studies of oral aripiprazole in schizophrenia or other indications did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects.
Dosage adjustment is recommended in known CYP2D6 poor metabolizers due to high aripiprazole concentrations. Approximately 8% of Caucasians and 3 to 8% of Black/African Americans cannot metabolize CYP2D6 substrates and are classified as poor metabolizers (PM) [see Dosage and Administration (2.7) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)] .
No dosage adjustment for aripiprazole is required on the basis of a patient’s hepatic function (mild to severe hepatic impairment, Child-Pugh score between 5 and 15), or renal function (mild to severe renal impairment, glomerular filtration rate between 15 and 90 mL/minute) [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ].
No dosage adjustment for aripiprazole is required on the basis of a patient’s sex, race, or smoking status [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ].
Aripiprazole is not a controlled substance.
Aripiprazole has not been systematically studied in humans for its potential for abuse, tolerance, or physical dependence. Consequently, patients should be evaluated carefully for a history of drug abuse, and such patients should be observed closely for signs of aripiprazole misuse or abuse (e.g., development of tolerance, increases in dose, drug-seeking behavior).
In physical dependence studies in monkeys, withdrawal symptoms were observed upon abrupt cessation of dosing. While the clinical trials did not reveal any tendency for any drug-seeking behavior, these observations were not systematic and it is not possible to predict on the basis of this limited experience the extent to which a CNS-active drug will be misused, diverted, and/or abused once marketed.
MedDRA terminology has been used to classify the adverse reactions.
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