Local irritation (injection site bleeding, rash, and pruritus) may occur following subcutaneous injection of ARIXTRA.
In the peri-operative prophylaxis randomized clinical trials of 7 ± 2 days, asymptomatic increases in aspartate (AST) and alanine (ALT) aminotransferase levels greater than 3 times the upper limit of normal were reported in 1.7% and 2.6% of patients, respectively, during treatment with ARIXTRA 2.5 mg once daily versus 3.2% and 3.9% of patients, respectively, during treatment with enoxaparin sodium 30 mg every 12 hours or 40 mg once daily enoxaparin sodium. These elevations are reversible and rarely associated with increases in bilirubin. In the extended prophylaxis clinical trial, no significant differences in AST and ALT levels between ARIXTRA 2.5 mg and placebo-treated patients were observed.
In the DVT and PE treatment clinical trials, asymptomatic increases in AST and ALT levels greater than 3 times the upper limit of normal of the laboratory reference range were reported in 0.7% and 1.3% of patients, respectively, during treatment with ARIXTRA. In comparison, these increases were reported in 4.8% and 12.3% of patients, respectively, in the DVT treatment trial during treatment with enoxaparin sodium 1 mg/kg every 12 hours and in 2.9% and 8.7% of patients, respectively, in the PE treatment trial during treatment with aPTT adjusted heparin.
Since aminotransferase determinations are important in the differential diagnosis of myocardial infarction, liver disease, and pulmonary emboli, elevations that might be caused by drugs like ARIXTRA should be interpreted with caution.
Other adverse reactions that occurred during treatment with ARIXTRA in clinical trials with patients undergoing hip fracture, hip replacement, or knee replacement surgery are provided in Table 5.
|Adverse Reactions||Peri-Operative Prophylaxis(Day 1 to Day 7 ± 1 post-surgery)||Extended Prophylaxis(Day 8 to Day 28 ± 2 post-surgery)|
2.5 mg SConce daily
|Enoxaparin Sodiuma, b|| |
2.5 mg SConce daily
PlaceboSC once daily
|N = 3,616||N = 3,956||N = 327||N = 329|
|Anemia||707 (19.6%)||670 (16.9%)||5 (1.5%)||4 (1.2%)|
|Insomnia||179 (5.0%)||214 (5.4%)||3 (0.9%)||1 (0.3%)|
|Wound drainage increased||161 (4.5%)||184 (4.7%)||2 (0.6%)||0 (0.0%)|
|Hypokalemia||152 (4.2%)||164 (4.1%)||0 (0.0%)||0 (0.0%)|
|Dizziness||131 (3.6%)||165 (4.2%)||2 (0.6%)||0 (0.0%)|
|Purpura||128 (3.5%)||137 (3.5%)||0 (0.0%)||0 (0.0%)|
|Hypotension||126 (3.5%)||125 (3.2%)||1 (0.3%)||0 (0.0%)|
|Confusion||113 (3.1%)||132 (3.3%)||4 (1.2%)||1 (0.3%)|
|Bullous eruptionc||112 (3.1%)||102 (2.6%)||0 (0.0%)||1 (0.3%)|
|Hematoma||103 (2.8%)||109 (2.8%)||7 (2.1%)||1 (0.3%)|
|Post-operative hemorrhage||85 (2.4%)||69 (1.7%)||2 (0.6%)||2 (0.6%)|
a Enoxaparin sodium dosing regimen: 30 mg every 12 hours or 40 mg once daily.
b Not approved for use in patients undergoing hip fracture surgery.
c Localized blister coded as bullous eruption.
Adverse reactions in the abdominal surgery study and in the VTE treatment trials generally occurred at lower rates than in the hip and knee surgery trials described above. The most common adverse reaction in the abdominal surgery trial was post-operative wound infection (4.9%), and the most common adverse reaction in the VTE treatment trials was epistaxis (1.3%).
The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of ARIXTRA. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Isolated occurrences of thrombocytopenia with thrombosis that manifested similar to heparin-induced thrombocytopenia have been reported in the postmarketing experience and isolated cases of elevated aPTT temporally associated with bleeding events have been reported following administration of ARIXTRA (with or without concomitant administration of other anticoagulants) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)].
In clinical studies performed with ARIXTRA, the concomitant use of oral anticoagulants (warfarin), platelet inhibitors (acetylsalicylic acid), NSAIDs (piroxicam), and digoxin did not significantly affect the pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics of fondaparinux sodium. In addition, ARIXTRA neither influenced the pharmacodynamics of warfarin, acetylsalicylic acid, piroxicam, and digoxin, nor the pharmacokinetics of digoxin at steady state.
Agents that may enhance the risk of hemorrhage should be discontinued prior to initiation of therapy with ARIXTRA unless these agents are essential. If co-administration is necessary, monitor patients closely for hemorrhage. [See Warnings and Precautions (5.1).]
In an in vitro study in human liver microsomes, inhibition of CYP2A6 hydroxylation of coumarin by fondaparinux (200 micromolar i.e., 350 mg/L) was 17 to 28%. Inhibition of the other isozymes evaluated (CYPs 1A2, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 3A4, and 3E1) was 0 to 16%. Since fondaparinux does not markedly inhibit CYP450s (CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, or CYP3A4) in vitro , fondaparinux sodium is not expected to significantly interact with other drugs in vivo by inhibition of metabolism mediated by these isozymes.
Since fondaparinux sodium does not bind significantly to plasma proteins other than ATIII, no drug interactions by protein-binding displacement are expected.
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