Both tolerance and physical dependence can develop during chronic opioid therapy. Tolerance is the need for increasing doses of opioids to maintain a defined effect such as analgesia (in the absence of disease progression or other external factors). Tolerance may occur to both the desired and undesired effects of drugs and may develop at different rates for different effects.
Physical dependence results in withdrawal symptoms after abrupt discontinuation or a significant dosage reduction of a drug. Withdrawal also may be precipitated through the administration of drugs with opioid antagonist activity (e.g., naloxone, nalmefene), mixed agonist/antagonist analgesics (e.g., pentazocine, butorphanol, nalbuphine), or partial agonists (e.g., buprenorphine). Physical dependence may not occur to a clinically significant degree until after several days to weeks of continued opioid usage.
Do not abruptly discontinue ASCOMP with Codeine in a patient physically dependent on opioids. Rapid tapering of ASCOMP with Codeine in a patient physically dependent on opioids may lead to serious withdrawal symptoms, uncontrolled pain, and suicide. Rapid discontinuation has also been associated with attempts to find other sources of opioid analgesics, which may be confused with drug-seeking for abuse.
When discontinuing ASCOMP with Codeine, gradually taper the dosage using a patient-specific plan that considers the following: the dose of ASCOMP with Codeine the patient has been taking, the duration of treatment, and the physical and psychological attributes of the patient. To improve the likelihood of a successful taper and minimize withdrawal symptoms, it is important that the opioid tapering schedule is agreed upon by the patient. In patients taking opioids for a long duration at high doses, ensure that a multimodal approach to pain management, including mental health support (if needed), is in place prior to initiating an opioid analgesic taper [see Dosage and Administration (2.3), Warnings and Precautions (5.15)].
Infants born to mothers physically dependent on opioids will also be physically dependent and may exhibit respiratory difficulties and withdrawal signs [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1, 8.2)].
Acute overdose with ASCOMP with CODEINE can be manifested by respiratory depression, somnolence progressing to stupor or coma, skeletal muscle flaccidity, cold and clammy skin, constricted pupils, and, in some cases, pulmonary edema, bradycardia, hypotension, partial or complete airway obstruction, atypical snoring, and death. Marked mydriasis rather than miosis may be seen with hypoxia in overdose situations [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.2)].
Signs and Symptoms
Acute Barbiturate Poisoning:
Symptoms include drowsiness, confusion, and coma; respiratory depression; hypotension; hypovolemic shock.
Acute Aspirin Poisoning:
Symptoms include hyperpnea; acid-base disturbances with development of metabolic acidosis; vomiting and abdominal pain; tinnitus, hyperthermia; hypoprothrombinemia; restlessness; delirium; convulsions.
Acute Caffeine Poisoning:
Symptoms include insomnia, restlessness, tremor, and delirium; tachycardia and extrasystoles.
Acute overdose with codeine can be manifested by respiratory depression, somnolence progressing to stupor or coma, skeletal muscle flaccidity, cold and clammy skin, constricted pupils, and, in some cases, pulmonary edema, bradycardia, hypotension, partial or complete airway obstruction, atypical snoring, and death. Marked mydriasis rather than miosis may be seen with hypoxia in overdose situations [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.2)].
Treatment of Overdose
In case of overdose, priorities are the reestablishment of a patent and protected airway and institution of assisted or controlled ventilation, if needed. Employ other supportive measures (including oxygen and vasopressors) in the management of circulatory shock and pulmonary edema as indicated. Cardiac arrest or arrhythmias will require advanced life-support techniques.
The opioid antagonists, naloxone or nalmefene, are specific antidotes to respiratory depression resulting from opioid overdose. For clinically significant respiratory or circulatory depression secondary to codeine phosphate overdose, administer an opioid antagonist. Opioid antagonists should not be administered in the absence of clinically significant respiratory or circulatory depression secondary to codeine overdose.
Because the duration of opioid reversal is expected to be less than the duration of action of codeine in ASCOMP with CODEINE, carefully monitor the patient until spontaneous respiration is reliably re-established. If the response to an opioid antagonist is suboptimal or only brief in nature, administer additional antagonist as directed by the product’s prescribing information.
In an individual physically dependent on opioids, administration of the recommended usual dosage of the antagonist will precipitate an acute withdrawal syndrome. The severity of the withdrawal symptoms experienced will depend on the degree of physical dependence and the dose of the antagonist administered. If a decision is made to treat serious respiratory depression in the physically dependent patient, administration of the antagonist should be begun with care and by titration with smaller than usual doses of the antagonist.
Treatment consists primarily of management of barbiturate intoxication, reversal of the effects of codeine, and the correction of the acid-base imbalance due to salicylism. Vomiting should be induced mechanically or with emetics in the conscious patient. Gastric lavage may be used if the pharyngeal and laryngeal reflexes are present and if less than 4 hours have elapsed since ingestion. A cuffed endotracheal tube should be inserted before gastric lavage of the unconscious patient and when necessary to provide assisted respiration. Diuresis, alkalinization of the urine, and correction of electrolyte disturbances should be accomplished through administration of intravenous fluids such as1% sodium bicarbonate and 5% dextrose in water.
Meticulous attention should be given to maintaining adequate pulmonary ventilation. The value of vasopressor agents such as Norepinephrine or Phenylephrine Hydrochloride in treating hypotension is questionable since they increase vasoconstriction and decrease blood flow. However, if prolonged support of blood pressure is required, Norepinephrine Bitartrate (Levophed®) may be given I.V. with the usual precautions and serial blood pressure monitoring. In severe cases of intoxication, peritoneal dialysis, hemodialysis, or exchange transfusion may be lifesaving. Hypoprothrombinemia should be treated with vitamin K, intravenously.
Methemoglobinemia over 30% should be treated with methylene blue by slow intravenous administration.
Naloxone, a narcotic antagonist, can reverse respiratory depression and coma associated with opioid overdose. Typically, a dose of 0.4 to 2 mg is given parenterally and may be repeated if an adequate response is not achieved. Since the duration of action of codeine may exceed that of the antagonist, the patient should be kept under continued surveillance and repeated doses of the antagonist should be administered as needed to maintain adequate respiration. A narcotic antagonist should not be administered in the absence of clinically significant respiratory or cardiovascular depression.
ASCOMP with CODEINE (butalbital, aspirin, caffeine, and codeine phosphate, USP) is supplied in capsule form for oral administration.
Each capsule contains the following active ingredients:
Codeine phosphate, USP……30mg
Butalbital (5-allyl-5-isobutylbarbituric acid) is a short-to intermediate-acting barbiturate. It has a molecular formula of: C11 H16 N2 O3 , with a molecular weight of 224.26, and the following structural formula:
Aspirin (benzoic acid, 2-(acetyloxy)-) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. It has a molecular formula of C9 H8 O4 with a molecular weight of 180.6, and the following structural formula:
Caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine), a methylxanthine, is a central nervous system stimulant. It has a molecular formula of C8H10N4O2 with a molecular weight of 194.19, and the following structural formula:
Codeine phosphate (7,8-Didehydro-4,5α-epoxy-3-methoxy-17-methylmorphinan-6α-ol phosphate (1:1) (salt) hemihydrate) is an opioid agonist. It has a molecular formula of C18 H24 NO7 P with an anhydrous molecular weight of 397.37, and the following structural formula:
Inactive Ingredients: Corn Starch, D&C Red No. 28, D&C Yellow No. 10, FD&C Blue No. 1, FD&C Red No. 40, Gelatin, Microcrystalline Cellulose, Sodium Lauryl Sulfate, Stearic Acid, Talc, and Titanium Dioxide.
The capsules are printed with edible black ink.
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