ASMANEX (Page 2 of 7)
5.5 Transferring Patients from Systemic Corticosteroid Therapy
HPA Suppression/Adrenal Insufficiency
Particular care is needed for patients who are transferred from systemically active corticosteroids to ASMANEX TWISTHALER because deaths due to adrenal insufficiency have occurred in asthmatic patients during and after transfer from systemic corticosteroids to less systemically available inhaled corticosteroids. After withdrawal from systemic corticosteroids, a number of months are required for recovery of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) function.
Patients who have been previously maintained on 20 mg or more per day of prednisone (or its equivalent) may be most susceptible, particularly when their systemic corticosteroids have been almost completely withdrawn. During this period of HPA suppression, patients may exhibit signs and symptoms of adrenal insufficiency when exposed to trauma, surgery, or infection (particularly gastroenteritis) or other conditions associated with severe electrolyte loss. Although ASMANEX TWISTHALER may improve control of asthma symptoms during these episodes, in recommended doses it supplies less than normal physiological amounts of corticosteroid systemically and does NOT provide the mineralocorticoid activity necessary for coping with these emergencies.
During periods of stress or severe asthma attack, patients who have been withdrawn from systemic corticosteroids should be instructed to resume oral corticosteroids (in large doses) immediately and to contact their physicians for further instruction. These patients should also be instructed to carry a medical identification card indicating that they may need supplementary systemic corticosteroids during periods of stress or severe asthma attack.
Patients requiring oral corticosteroids should be weaned slowly from systemic corticosteroid use after transferring to ASMANEX TWISTHALER. Prednisone reduction can be accomplished by reducing the daily prednisone dose by 2.5 mg on a weekly basis during treatment with ASMANEX TWISTHALER [see Dosage and Administration (2.1)]. Lung function (FEV1 or PEFR), beta-agonist use, and asthma symptoms should be carefully monitored during withdrawal of oral corticosteroids. In addition to monitoring asthma signs and symptoms, patients should be observed for signs and symptoms of adrenal insufficiency such as fatigue, lassitude, weakness, nausea and vomiting, and hypotension.
Unmasking of Allergic Conditions Previously Suppressed by Systemic Corticosteroids
Transfer of patients from systemic corticosteroid therapy to ASMANEX TWISTHALER may unmask allergic conditions previously suppressed by the systemic corticosteroid therapy, e.g., rhinitis, conjunctivitis, eczema, arthritis, and eosinophilic conditions.
Corticosteroid Withdrawal Symptoms
During withdrawal from oral corticosteroids, some patients may experience symptoms of systemically active corticosteroid withdrawal, e.g., joint and/or muscular pain, lassitude, and depression, despite maintenance or even improvement of respiratory function.
5.6 Hypercorticism and Adrenal Suppression
ASMANEX TWISTHALER will often help control asthma symptoms with less suppression of HPA function than therapeutically similar oral doses of prednisone. Since individual sensitivity to effects on cortisol production exists, physicians should consider this information when prescribing ASMANEX TWISTHALER. Particular care should be taken in observing patients postoperatively or during periods of stress for evidence of inadequate adrenal response. It is possible that systemic corticosteroid effects such as hypercorticism and adrenal suppression may appear in a small number of patients, particularly when ASMANEX TWISTHALER is administered at higher than recommended doses over prolonged periods of time. If such effects occur, the dosage of ASMANEX TWISTHALER should be reduced slowly, consistent with accepted procedures for reducing systemic corticosteroids and for management of asthma.
5.7 Reduction in Bone Mineral Density
Decreases in bone mineral density (BMD) have been observed with long-term administration of products containing inhaled corticosteroids, including mometasone furoate. The clinical significance of small changes in BMD with regard to long-term outcomes is unknown. Patients with major risk factors for decreased bone mineral content, such as prolonged immobilization, family history of osteoporosis, or chronic use of drugs that can reduce bone mass (e.g., anticonvulsants and corticosteroids) should be monitored and treated with established standards of care.
In a 2-year double-blind study in 103 male and female asthma patients 18 to 50 years of age previously maintained on bronchodilator therapy (baseline FEV1 85%–88% predicted), treatment with ASMANEX TWISTHALER 220 mcg twice daily resulted in significant reductions in lumbar spine (LS) BMD at the end of the treatment period compared to placebo. The mean change from baseline to endpoint in the lumbar spine BMD was -0.015 (-1.43%) for the ASMANEX TWISTHALER group compared to 0.002 (0.25%) for the placebo group. In another 2-year double-blind study in 87 male and female asthma patients 18 to 50 years of age previously maintained on bronchodilator therapy (baseline FEV1 82%–83% predicted), treatment with ASMANEX TWISTHALER 440 mcg twice daily demonstrated no statistically significant changes in lumbar spine BMD at the end of the treatment period compared to placebo. The mean change from baseline to endpoint in the lumbar spine BMD was -0.018 (-1.57%) for the ASMANEX TWISTHALER group compared to -0.006 (-0.43%) for the placebo group.
5.8 Effect on Growth
Orally inhaled corticosteroids, including ASMANEX TWISTHALER, may cause a reduction in growth velocity when administered to pediatric patients. Monitor the growth of pediatric patients receiving ASMANEX TWISTHALER routinely (e.g., via stadiometry). To minimize the systemic effects of orally inhaled corticosteroids, including ASMANEX TWISTHALER, titrate each patient’s dose to the lowest dosage that effectively controls his/her symptoms [see Use in Specific Populations (8.4)].
5.9 Glaucoma and Cataracts
In clinical trials, glaucoma, increased intraocular pressure, and cataracts have been reported in 8 of 3007 patients following the administration of ASMANEX TWISTHALER. Consider referral to an ophthalmologist in patients who develop ocular symptoms or use ASMANEX TWISTHALER long term.
5.10 Paradoxical Bronchospasm
As with other inhaled asthma medications, bronchospasm may occur with an immediate increase in wheezing after dosing. If bronchospasm occurs following dosing with ASMANEX TWISTHALER, it should be treated immediately with a fast-acting inhaled bronchodilator.
Treatment with ASMANEX TWISTHALER should be discontinued and alternative therapy instituted.
5.11 Drug Interactions with Strong Cytochrome P450 3A4 Inhibitors
Caution should be exercised when considering the coadministration of ASMANEX TWISTHALER with ketoconazole, and other known strong CYP3A4 inhibitors (e.g., ritonavir, cobicistat-containing products, atazanavir, clarithromycin, indinavir, itraconazole, nefazodone, nelfinavir, saquinavir, telithromycin) because adverse effects related to increased systemic exposure to mometasone furoate may occur [see Drug Interactions (7.1) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
6 ADVERSE REACTIONS
The following clinically significant adverse reactions are described elsewhere in the labeling:
- Oropharyngeal Candidiasis [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]
- Immunosuppression and Risk of Infections [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)]
- Hypercorticism and Adrenal Suppression [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)]
- Reduction in Bone Mineral Density [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)]
- Growth Effects [see Warnings and Precautions (5.8) and Use in Specific Populations (8.4)]
- Glaucoma and Cataracts [see Warnings and Precautions (5.9)]
6.1 Clinical Studies Experience
The safety data described below reflect exposure to ASMANEX TWISTHALER in 2380 patients with asthma exposed for 8 to 12 weeks and 627 patients with asthma exposed for 1 year in a total of 17 clinical trials.
In adult and adolescent patients 12 years of age and older, ASMANEX TWISTHALER was studied in 10 placebo-controlled clinical trials of 8 to 12 weeks duration with a total of 1750 patients receiving ASMANEX TWISTHALER. There were also 3 trials with a total of 475 patients receiving ASMANEX TWISTHALER for 1 year. In the 8- to 12-week clinical trials, the population was 12 to 83 years of age; 38% males and 62% females; and 83% Caucasian, 8% black, 6% Hispanic, and 3% other race/ethnicity. Patients received ASMANEX TWISTHALER 110 mcg twice daily (n=133), 220 mcg once daily in the morning (n=209), 220 mcg once daily in the evening (n=232), 220 mcg twice daily (n=433), 440 mcg once daily in the morning (n=419), 440 mcg once daily in the evening (n=250), or 440 mcg twice daily (n=74). In 3 long-term safety trials (two 9-month extensions of efficacy trials and one 52-week active-controlled safety trial), 475 patients with asthma (12-83 years of age, 44% males, 56% females, 87% Caucasian, 8% black, 4% Hispanic, and 1% other race/ethnicity) received various doses of ASMANEX TWISTHALER for 1 year.
In pediatric patients 4 to 11 years of age, ASMANEX TWISTHALER was studied in 3 placebo-controlled clinical trials of 12 weeks duration with a total of 630 patients receiving ASMANEX TWISTHALER and a 52-week, active-controlled safety trial with a total of 152 patients receiving ASMANEX TWISTHALER. In the 12-week clinical trials, the population was 4 to 11 years of age; 63% males and 37% females; and 67% Caucasian, 13% black, 17% Hispanic, and 3% other race/ethnicity. Patients received ASMANEX TWISTHALER 110 mcg once daily in the evening (n=98), 110 mcg once daily in the morning (n=181), 110 mcg twice daily (n=179), or 220 mcg once daily in the morning (n=172). In the long-term active-controlled safety trial (n=152), patients with asthma (4 to 11 years of age, 60% males and 40% females, 84% Caucasian, 11% Black, and 5% Hispanic) received ASMANEX TWISTHALER 110 mcg twice daily or 220 mcg once daily in the morning for 52 weeks.
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
Adults and Adolescents 12 Years of Age and Older: The safety results of the 10 trials that were 8 to 12 weeks in duration were pooled because patients with asthma in these studies were previously maintained on bronchodilators and/or inhaled corticosteroids. The safety results of the one 12-week clinical trial in patients with asthma previously treated with oral corticosteroids are presented separately.
In the pooled 8- to 12-week clinical trials, adverse reactions were reported in 70% of patients treated with ASMANEX TWISTHALER (n=1750) compared to 65% of patients taking placebo (n=720). Table 2 displays the common adverse reactions (≥3% in any patient group receiving ASMANEX TWISTHALER) that occurred more frequently in patients treated with ASMANEX TWISTHALER compared to patients treated with placebo.
|(%) of Patients|
|Adverse Reaction||220 mcg twice daily(n=433)||440 mcg once daily(n=497)||220 mcg once daily in the evening(n=232)||Placebo(n=720)|
|Upper Respiratory Infection||10||8||15||7|
|Average Duration of Exposure (Days)||81||70||80||62|
The following other adverse reactions occurred in these clinical trials with an incidence of at least 1% but less than 3% and were more common on ASMANEX TWISTHALER therapy than on placebo:
Body as a Whole: fatigue, flu-like symptoms, pain
Gastrointestinal: gastroenteritis, vomiting, anorexia
Hearing, Vestibular: earache
Resistance Mechanism: infection
Respiratory: dysphonia, epistaxis, nasal irritation, respiratory disorder, throat dry
In the 12-week trial in adult asthmatics who previously required oral corticosteroids, the effects of ASMANEX TWISTHALER therapy administered as two 220-mcg inhalations twice daily (n=46) were compared with those of placebo (n=43). Adverse reactions, whether considered drug-related or not by the investigators, reported in more than 3 patients in the ASMANEX TWISTHALER treatment group, and which occurred more frequently than in placebo were (ASMANEX TWISTHALER % vs. placebo %): musculoskeletal pain (22% vs. 14%), oral candidiasis (22% vs. 9%), sinusitis (22% vs. 19%), allergic rhinitis (20% vs. 5%), upper respiratory infection (15% vs. 14%), arthralgia (13% vs. 7%), fatigue (13% vs. 2%), depression (11% vs. 0%), and sinus congestion (9% vs. 0%). In considering these data, an increased duration of exposure for patients on ASMANEX TWISTHALER treatment (77 days vs. 58 days on placebo) should be taken into account.
Long-Term Clinical Trials Experience — 12 Years of Age and Older: In 3 long-term safety trials, 475 patients with asthma 12 years of age and older were treated with ASMANEX TWISTHALER 220 mcg twice daily (n=60), 220 mcg once daily in the morning (n=41), 220 mcg once daily in the evening (n=40), 440 mcg once daily in the morning (n=44), 440 mcg once daily in the evening (n=41), 440 mcg twice daily (n=62), 880 mcg once daily (n=59), or at variable doses (n=128) for 52 weeks. The safety profile of ASMANEX TWISTHALER in the 52-week trials was similar to the findings in the 8- to 12-week clinical trials. In patients previously on inhaled corticosteroids, cataracts were reported in 3 patients (0.9%) treated with ASMANEX TWISTHALER, compared to 1 patient (1.7%) treated with the active comparator medication. Increased ocular pressure at the end of the study was observed in 2 patients, both on ASMANEX TWISTHALER 880 mcg once daily in the morning. Oral candidiasis, dysphonia, and dysmenorrhea were seen at a higher frequency with long-term administration than in the 8- to 12-week trials.
Pediatric Patients 4 to 11 Years of Age: In the three 12-week clinical trials in pediatric patients 4 to 11 years of age, patients with asthma were previously maintained on bronchodilators and/or inhaled corticosteroids. The safety results from 1 trial are described in Table 3 for ASMANEX TWISTHALER 110 mcg once daily in the evening. The safety results from the other 2 trials showed similar findings.
Overall adverse reactions were reported with approximately the same frequency by patients treated with ASMANEX TWISTHALER and those receiving placebo. Table 3 displays the common adverse reactions (≥2% in any patient group receiving ASMANEX TWISTHALER) that occurred more frequently in patients 4 to 11 years of age treated with ASMANEX TWISTHALER compared with placebo-treated patients.
|(%) of Patients|
|Adverse Reaction||110 mcg once daily in the evening(n=98)||Placebo(n=99)|
|Urinary Tract Infection||2||1|
|Average Duration of Exposure (Days)||72||68|
Long-Term Clinical Trials Experience in Children 4 to 11 Years of Age: In a 52-week, active-controlled, long-term safety trial, 152 patients with asthma 4 to 11 years of age were treated with ASMANEX TWISTHALER 110 mcg twice daily (n=74) or 220 mcg once daily (n=78). The safety profile for ASMANEX TWISTHALER in the 52-week trial was similar to the findings in the 12-week clinical trials.
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