Aspirin and Dipyridamole (Page 2 of 6)
6.2 Post-Marketing Experience
The following is a list of additional adverse reactions that have been reported either in the literature or are from post-marketing spontaneous reports for either dipyridamole or aspirin. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to estimate reliably their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. Decisions to include these reactions in labeling are typically based on one or more of the following factors: (1) seriousness of the reaction, (2) frequency of reporting, or (3) strength of causal connection to aspirin and extended-release dipyridamole capsules.
Body as a Whole: Hypothermia, chest pain, allergic reaction, syncope
Cardiovascular: Angina pectoris, hypotension
Central Nervous System: Cerebral edema, dizziness, cerebral hemorrhage, intracranial hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage
Fluid and Electrolyte: Hyperkalemia, metabolic acidosis, respiratory alkalosis, hypokalemia Gastrointestinal: Pancreatitis, Reye syndrome, hematemesis, gastritis, ulceration and perforation, hemorrhage rectum, melena, GI hemorrhage
Hearing and Vestibular Disorders: Hearing loss Heart Rate and Rhythm Disorders: Tachycardia, palpitation
Immune System Disorders: Hypersensitivity, acute anaphylaxis, laryngeal edema Liver and Biliary System Disorders: Hepatitis, hepatic failure, cholelithiasis, jaundice, hepatic function abnormal
Musculoskeletal: Rhabdomyolysis, myalgia
Metabolic and Nutritional Disorders: Hypoglycemia, dehydration
Platelet, Bleeding and Clotting Disorders: Prolongation of the prothrombin time, disseminated intravascular coagulation, coagulopathy, thrombocytopenia, hematoma, gingival bleeding, epistaxis, purpura
Psychiatric Disorders: Confusion, agitation
Respiratory: Tachypnea, dyspnea, hemoptysis
Skin and Appendages Disorders: Rash, alopecia, angioedema, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, skin hemorrhages such as bruising, ecchymosis, and hematoma, pruritus, urticaria, and drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS)
Urogenital: Interstitial nephritis, papillary necrosis, proteinuria, renal insufficiency and failure, hematuria
Vascular (Extracardiac) Disorders: Allergic vasculitis, flushing
Other Adverse Events: Anorexia, aplastic anemia, migraine, pancytopenia, thrombocytosis.
7 DRUG INTERACTIONS
7.1 Drug Interaction Study Information Obtained From Literature
Adenosinergic agents (e.g. adenosine, regadenoson)
Dipyridamole has been reported to increase the plasma levels and cardiovascular effects of adenosine. Adjustment of adenosine dosage may be necessary. Dipyridamole also increases the cardiovascular effects of regadenoson, an adenosine A2A -receptor agonist. The potential risk of cardiovascular side effects with intravenous adenosinergic agents may be increased during the testing period when dipyridamole is not held 48 hours prior to stress testing.
Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitors
Because of the indirect effect of aspirin on the renin-angiotensin conversion pathway, the hyponatremic and hypotensive effects of ACE inhibitors may be diminished by concomitant administration of aspirin.
Concurrent use of aspirin and acetazolamide can lead to high serum concentrations of acetazolamide (and toxicity) due to competition at the renal tubule for secretion.
Anticoagulants and Antiplatelets
Patients taking aspirin and extended-release dipyridamole capsules in combination with anticoagulants, antiplatelets, or any substance impacting coagulation are at increased risk for bleeding. Aspirin can displace warfarin from protein binding sites, leading to prolongation of both the prothrombin time and the bleeding time. Aspirin can increase the anticoagulant activity of heparin, increasing bleeding risk.
Patients taking aspirin in combination with anagrelide are at an increased risk of bleeding.
Salicylic acid can displace protein-bound phenytoin and valproic acid, leading to a decrease in the total concentration of phenytoin and an increase in serum valproic acid levels.
The hypotensive effects of beta blockers may be diminished by the concomitant administration of aspirin due to inhibition of renal prostaglandins, leading to decreased renal blood flow and salt and fluid retention.
Dipyridamole may counteract the anticholinesterase effect of cholinesterase inhibitors, thereby potentially aggravating myasthenia gravis.
The effectiveness of diuretics in patients with underlying renal or cardiovascular disease may be diminished by the concomitant administration of aspirin due to inhibition of renal prostaglandins, leading to decreased renal blood flow and salt and fluid retention.
Salicylate can inhibit renal clearance of methotrexate, leading to bone marrow toxicity, especially in the elderly or renal impaired.
Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)
The concurrent use of aspirin with other NSAIDs may increase bleeding or lead to decreased renal function.
Moderate doses of aspirin may increase the effectiveness of oral hypoglycemic drugs, leading to hypoglycemia.
Uricosuric Agents (probenecid and sulfinpyrazone)
Salicylates antagonize the uricosuric action of uricosuric agents.
8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS
Available data from published studies and postmarketing experience with aspirin and extended-release dipyridamole capsules use during pregnancy have not identified a clear association between aspirin and extended-release dipyridamole capsules use and major birth defects, miscarriage, or adverse maternal or fetal outcomes (see Data). Aspirin and extended-release dipyridamole capsules contains low-dose aspirin which is an NSAID (see Clinical Considerations). In animal reproduction studies, there were adverse developmental effects with administration of aspirin in rats and rabbits at doses about 66 and 44 times, respectively, the human exposure at the maximum recommended daily dose of aspirin-dipyridamole. Reproduction studies with dipyridamole in mice, rabbits, and rats have revealed no evidence of harm to the fetus up to doses about 25 times the maximum recommended daily human dose of aspirin-dipyridamole. Nonclinical data are suggestive of a possible potentiation of aspirin-related fetal toxicity when combined with dipyridamole (see Data).
The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcomes. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2 to 4 and 15 to 20%, respectively.
Labor and Delivery
Aspirin and extended-release dipyridamole capsules, which contains dipyridamole and low-dose aspirin, increases the risk for bleeding [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]. Maternal use of high-dose aspirin can result in excessive blood loss at delivery, prolonged gestation, prolonged labor, intracranial hemorrhage in premature infants, low birth weight, stillbirth, and neonatal death.
Published data from clinical trials, observational studies, case series, and case reports over several decades have not identified a clear association between aspirin-dipyridamole use in pregnancy and major birth defects, miscarriage, or adverse maternal or fetal outcomes. However, these studies cannot definitively establish the absence of any aspirin-dipyridamole associated risks. Methodological limitations of these studies include variability in the timing and dose of drug exposure (e.g., most exposures occurred beyond the first trimester) and the small sample sizes of individual studies.
Aspirin has been shown to be teratogenic in rats (spina bifida, exencephaly, microphthalmia and coelosomia) and rabbits (congested fetuses, agenesis of skull and upper jaw, generalized edema with malformation of the head, and diaphanous skin) at oral doses of 330 mg/kg/day and 110 mg/kg/day, respectively. These doses, which also resulted in a high resorption rate in rats (63% of implantations versus 5% in controls), are, on a mg/m2 basis, about 66 and 44 times, respectively, the dose of aspirin contained in the maximum recommended daily human dose of aspirin-dipyridamole. Reproduction studies with dipyridamole have been performed in mice, rabbits and rats at oral doses of up to 125 mg/kg, 40 mg/kg, and 1,000 mg/kg, respectively (about 1½, 2, and 25 times the maximum recommended daily human oral dose, respectively, on a mg/m2 basis) and have revealed no evidence of harm to the fetus due to dipyridamole. When 330 mg aspirin/kg/day was combined with 75 mg dipyridamole/kg/day in the rat at doses about 66 and 2 times, respectively, the maximum recommended daily human dose, the resorption rate approached 100%.
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