The pharmacokinetics of atomoxetine in children and adolescents are similar to those in adults. The safety, efficacy, and pharmacokinetics of atomoxetine hydrochloride in pediatric patients less than 6 years of age have not been evaluated.
A study was conducted in young rats to evaluate the effects of atomoxetine on growth and neurobehavioral and sexual development. Rats were treated with 1, 10, or 50 mg/kg/day (approximately 0.2, 2, and 8 times, respectively, the maximum human dose on a mg/m2 basis) of atomoxetine given by gavage from the early postnatal period (Day 10 of age) through adulthood. Slight delays in onset of vaginal patency (all doses) and preputial separation (10 and 50 mg/kg), slight decreases in epididymal weight and sperm number (10 and 50 mg/kg), and a slight decrease in corpora lutea (50 mg/kg) were seen, but there were no effects on fertility or reproductive performance. A slight delay in onset of incisor eruption was seen at 50 mg/kg. A slight increase in motor activity was seen on Day 15 (males at 10 and 50 mg/kg and females at 50 mg/kg) and on Day 30 (females at 50 mg/kg) but not on Day 60 of age. There were no effects on learning and memory tests. The significance of these findings to humans is unknown.
The safety, efficacy and pharmacokinetics of atomoxetine hydrochloride in geriatric patients have not been evaluated.
Atomoxetine exposure (AUC) is increased, compared with normal subjects, in EM subjects with moderate (Child-Pugh Class B) (2-fold increase) and severe (Child-Pugh Class C) (4-fold increase) hepatic insufficiency. Dosage adjustment is recommended for patients with moderate or severe hepatic insufficiency [see Dosage and Administration (2.3)].
EM subjects with end stage renal disease had higher systemic exposure to atomoxetine than healthy subjects (about a 65% increase), but there was no difference when exposure was corrected for mg/kg dose. Atomoxetine hydrochloride can therefore be administered to ADHD patients with end stage renal disease or lesser degrees of renal insufficiency using the normal dosing regimen.
Gender did not influence atomoxetine disposition.
Ethnic origin did not influence atomoxetine disposition (except that PMs are more common in Caucasians).
Tics in patients with ADHD and comorbid Tourette’s Disorder — Atomoxetine administered in a flexible dose range of 0.5 to 1.5 mg/kg/day (mean dose of 1.3 mg/kg/day) and placebo were compared in 148 randomized pediatric (age 7-17 years) subjects with a DSM-IV diagnosis of ADHD and comorbid tic disorder in an 18 week, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in which the majority (80%) enrolled in this trial with Tourette’s Disorder (Tourette’s Disorder: 116 subjects; chronic motor tic disorder: 29 subjects). A non-inferiority analysis revealed that atomoxetine hydrochloride did not worsen tics in these patients as determined by the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale Total Score (YGTSS). Out of 148 patients who entered the acute treatment phase, 103 (69.6%) patients discontinued the study. The primary reason for discontinuation in both the atomoxetine (38 of 76 patients, 50%) and placebo (45 of 72 patients, 62.5%) treatment groups was identified as lack of efficacy with most of the patients discontinuing at Week 12. This was the first visit where patients with a CGI-S ≥4 could also meet the criteria for “clinical non-responder” (CGI-S remained the same or increased from study baseline) and be eligible to enter an open-label extension study with atomoxetine. There have been postmarketing reports of tics [see Adverse Reactions ( 6.2) ].
Anxiety in patients with ADHD and comorbid Anxiety Disorders — In two postmarketing, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials, it has been demonstrated that treating patients with ADHD and comorbid anxiety disorders with atomoxetine does not worsen their anxiety.
In a 12-week double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 176 patients, aged 8 to 17, who met DSM-IV criteria for ADHD and at least one of the anxiety disorders of separation anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder or social phobia were randomized. Following a 2-week double-blind placebo lead-in, atomoxetine was initiated at 0.8 mg/kg/day with increase to a target dose of 1.2 mg/kg/day (median dose 1.30 mg/kg/day +/-0.29 mg/kg/day). Atomoxetine did not worsen anxiety in these patients as determined by the Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale (PARS). Of the 158 patients who completed the double-blind placebo lead-in, 26 (16%) patients discontinued the study.
In a separate 16-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 442 patients aged 18 to 65, who met DSM-IV criteria for adult ADHD and social anxiety disorder (23% of whom also had Generalized Anxiety Disorder) were randomized. Following a 2-week double-blind placebo lead-in, atomoxetine was initiated at 40 mg/day to a maximum dose of 100 mg/day (mean daily dose 83 mg/day +/- 19.5 mg/day). Atomoxetine did not worsen anxiety in these patients as determined by the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS). Of the 413 patients who completed the double-blind placebo lead-in, 149 (36.1%) patients discontinued the study. There have been postmarketing reports of anxiety [see Adverse Reactions ( 6.2) ].
Atomoxetine hydrochloride is not a controlled substance.
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, abuse-potential study in adults comparing effects of atomoxetine hydrochloride and placebo, atomoxetine hydrochloride was not associated with a pattern of response that suggested stimulant or euphoriant properties.
Clinical study data in over 2,000 children, adolescents, and adults with ADHD and over 1,200 adults with depression showed only isolated incidents of drug diversion or inappropriate self-administration associated with atomoxetine hydrochloride. There was no evidence of symptom rebound or adverse reactions suggesting a drug-discontinuation or withdrawal syndrome.
Animal Experience – Drug discrimination studies in rats and monkeys showed inconsistent stimulus generalization between atomoxetine and cocaine.
There is limited clinical trial experience with atomoxetine hydrochloride overdose. During postmarketing, there have been fatalities reported involving a mixed ingestion overdose of atomoxetine hydrochloride and at least one other drug. There have been no reports of death involving overdose of atomoxetine hydrochloride alone, including intentional overdoses at amounts up to 1400 mg. In some cases of overdose involving atomoxetine hydrochloride, seizures have been reported. The most commonly reported symptoms accompanying acute and chronic overdoses of atomoxetine hydrochloride were gastrointestinal symptoms, somnolence, dizziness, tremor, and abnormal behavior. Hyperactivity and agitation have also been reported. Signs and symptoms consistent with mild to moderate sympathetic nervous system activation (e.g., tachycardia, blood pressure increased, mydriasis, dry mouth) have also been observed. Most events were mild to moderate. Less commonly, there have been reports of QT prolongation and mental changes, including disorientation and hallucinations [see Clinical Pharmacology ( 12.2)].
Consult with a Certified Poison Control Center for up to date guidance and advice. Because atomoxetine is highly protein-bound, dialysis is not likely to be useful in the treatment of overdose.
Atomoxetine HCl is a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor. Atomoxetine hydrochloride is the R (-) isomer as determined by x-ray diffraction. The chemical designation is (-)-N-Methyl-3-phenyl-3-(o -tolyloxy)-propylamine hydrochloride. The molecular formula is C17 H21 NO•HCL, which corresponds to a molecular weight of 291.82. The chemical structure is:
Atomoxetine hydrochloride USP is a white to practically white solid, which is sparingly soluble in water. Atomoxetine capsules, USP are intended for oral administration only.
Each capsule contains atomoxetine hydrochloride USP, equivalent to 10, 18, 25, 40, 60, 80 or 100 mg of atomoxetine. The capsules also contain pregelatinized starch, dimethicone. The capsule shells contain one or more of the following: FD&C Blue No. 2, gelatin, iron oxide red, iron oxide yellow,sodium lauryl sulfate and titanium dioxide. The capsules are imprinted with edible black ink. The edible black ink contains black iron oxide E172, butyl alcohol, dehydrated alcohol, isopropyl alcohol, potassium hydroxide, propylene glycol, shellac and strong ammonia solution.
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