Atorvastatin Calcium (Page 4 of 11)

6.2 Postmarketing Experience

The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of atorvastatin calcium. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.

Adverse reactions associated with atorvastatin calcium therapy reported since market introduction, that are not listed above, regardless of causality assessment, include the following: anaphylaxis, angioneurotic edema, bullous rashes (including erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and toxic epidermal necrolysis), rhabdomyolysis, myositis, fatigue, tendon rupture, fatal and non-fatal hepatic failure, dizziness, depression, peripheral neuropathy, pancreatitis and interstitial lung disease.

There have been rare reports of immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy associated with statin use [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]

There have been rare postmarketing reports of cognitive impairment (e.g., memory loss, forgetfulness, amnesia, memory impairment, confusion) associated with statin use. These cognitive issues have been reported for all statins. The reports are generally nonserious, and reversible upon statin discontinuation, with variable times to symptom onset (1 day to years) and symptom resolution (median of 3 weeks).

7 DRUG INTERACTIONS

7.1 Drug Interactions that may Increase the Risk of Myopathy and Rhabdomyolysis with Atorvastatin Calcium

Atorvastatin calcium is a substrate of CYP3A4 and transporters (e.g., OATP1B1/1B3, P-gp, or BCRP). Atorvastatin plasma levels can be significantly increased with concomitant administration of inhibitors of CYP3A4 and transporters. Table 3 includes a list of drugs that may increase exposure to atorvastatin and may increase the risk of myopathy and rhabdomyolysis when used concomitantly and instructions for preventing or managing them [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.1) and Clinical Pharmacology ( 12.3)].

Table 3: Drug Interactions that may Increase the Risk of Myopathy and Rhabdomyolysis with Atorvastatin Calcium

Cyclosporine or Gemfibrozil
Clinical Impact: Atorvastatin plasma levels were significantly increased with concomitant administration of atorvastatin calcium and cyclosporine, an inhibitor of CYP3A4 and OATP1B1 [ see Clinical Pharmacology ( 12.3)]. Gemfibrozil may cause myopathy when given alone. The risk of myopathy and rhabdomyolysis is increased with concomitant use of cyclosporine or gemfibrozil with atorvastatin calcium.
Intervention: Concomitant use of cyclosporine or gemfibrozil with atorvastatin calcium is not recommended
Anti-Viral Medications
Clinical Impact: Atorvastatin plasma levels were significantly increased with concomitant administration of atorvastatin calcium tablets with many anti-viral medications, which are inhibitors of CYP3A4 and/or transporters (e.g., BCRP, OATP1B1/1B3, P-gp, MRP2, and/or OAT2) [ see Clinical Pharmacology ( 12.3)]. Cases of myopathy and rhabdomyolysis have been reported with concomitant use of ledipasvir plus sofosbuvir with atorvastatin calcium.
Intervention: • Concomitant use of tipranavir plus ritonavir or glecaprevir plus pibrentasvir with atorvastatin calcium tablets are not recommended.• In patients taking lopinavir plus ritonavir, or simeprevir, consider the risk/benefit of concomitant use with atorvastatin. • In patients taking saquinavir plus ritonavir, darunavir plus ritonavir, • fosamprenavir,fosamprenavir plus ritonavir, elbasvir plus grazoprevir or letermovir, do not exceed atorvastatin calcium tablets 20 mg. • In patients taking nelfinavir, do not exceed atorvastatin calcium tablets 40 mg [see Dosage and Administration (2.6)].• Consider the risk/benefit of concomitant use of ledipasvir plus sofosbuvir with atorvastatin calcium. • Monitor all patients for signs and symptoms of myopathy particularly during initiation of therapy and during upward dose titration of either drug.
Examples: Tipranavir plus ritonavir, glecaprevir plus pibrentasvir, lopinavir plus ritonavir, simeprevir, saquinavir plus ritonavir, darunavir plus ritonavir, fosamprenavir, fosamprenavir plus ritonavir, elbasvir plus grazoprevir, letermovir, nelfinavir, and ledipasvir plus sofosbuvir.
Select Azole Antifungals or Macrolide Antibiotics
Clinical Impact: Atorvastatin plasma levels were significantly increased with concomitant administration of atorvastatin calcium with select azole antifungals or macrolide antibiotics, due to inhibition of CYP3A4 and/or transporters [ see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Intervention: In patients taking clarithromycin or itraconazole, do not exceed atorvastatin calcium tablets 20 mg [ see Dosage and Administration (2.6)]. Consider the risk/benefit of concomitant use of other azole antifungals or macrolide antibiotics with atorvastatin. Monitor all patients for signs and symptoms of myopathy particularly during initiation of therapy and during upward dose titration of either drug.
Examples: Erythromycin, clarithromycin, itraconazole, ketoconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole.
Niacin
Clinical Impact: Cases of myopathy and rhabdomyolysis have been observed with concomitant use of lipid modifying dosages of niacin (>1 gram/day niacin) with atorvastatin calcium.
Intervention: Consider if the benefit of using lipid modifying dosages of niacin concomitantly with atorvastatin calcium outweighs the increased risk of myopathy and rhabdomyolysis. If concomitant use is decided, monitor patients for signs and symptoms of myopathy particularly during initiation of therapy and during upward dose titration of either drug.
Fibrates (other than Gemfibrozil)
Clinical Impact: Fibrates may cause myopathy when given alone. The risk of myopathy and rhabdomyolysis is increased with concomitant use of fibrates with atorvastatin calcium.
Intervention: Consider if the benefit of using fibrates concomitantly with atorvastatin calcium outweighs the increased risk of myopathy and rhabdomyolysis. If concomitant use is decided, monitor patients for signs and symptoms of myopathy particularly during initiation of therapy and during upward dose titration of either drug.
Colchicine
Clinical Impact: Cases of myopathy and rhabdomyolysis have been reported with concomitant use of colchicine with atorvastatin.
Intervention: Consider the risk/benefit of concomitant use of colchicine with atorvastatin. If concomitant use is decided, monitor patients for signs and symptoms of myopathy particularly during initiation of therapy and during upward dose titration of either drug.
Grapefruit Juice
Clinical Impact: Grapefruit juice consumption, especially excessive consumption, more than 1.2 liters/daily, can raise the plasma levels of atorvastatin and may increase the risk of myopathy and rhabdomyolysis.
Intervention: Avoid intake of large quantities of grapefruit juice, more than 1.2 liters daily, when taking atorvastatin calcium tablets.

7.2 Drug Interactions that may Decrease Exposure to Atorvastatin Calcium

Table 4 presents drug interactions that may decrease exposure to atorvastatin calcium and instructions for preventing or managing them.

Table 4: Drug Interactions that may Decrease Exposure to Atorvastatin Calcium

Rifampin
Clinical Impact: Concomitant administration of atorvastatin calcium tablets with rifampin, an inducer of cytochrome P450 3A4 and inhibitor of OATP1B1, can lead to variable reductions in plasma concentrations of atorvastatin. Due to the dual interaction mechanism of rifampin, delayed administration of atorvastatin calcium tablets after administration of rifampin has been associated with a significant reduction in atorvastatin plasma concentrations.
Intervention: Administer atorvastatin calcium tablets and rifampin simultaneously.

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