Auvi-Q (Page 2 of 5)
5.5 DISEASE INTERACTIONS
Some patients may be at greater risk for developing adverse reactions after epinephrine administration. Despite these concerns, it should be recognized that the presence of these conditions is not a contraindication to epinephrine administration in an acute, life-threatening situation. Therefore, patients with these conditions, and/or any other person who might be in a position to administer AUVI-Q to a patient experiencing anaphylaxis should be carefully instructed in regard to the circumstances under which epinephrine should be used.
- Patients with Heart Disease
Epinephrine should be administered with caution to patients who have heart disease, including patients with cardiac arrhythmias, coronary artery or organic heart disease, or hypertension. In such patients, or in patients who are on drugs that may sensitize the heart to arrhythmias, epinephrine may precipitate or aggravate angina pectoris as well as produce ventricular arrhythmias [ see DRUG INTERACTIONS ( 7) and ADVERSE REACTIONS ( 6) ].
- Other Patients and Diseases
Epinephrine should be administered with caution to patients with hyperthyroidism, diabetes, elderly individuals, and pregnant women. Patients with Parkinson’s disease may notice a temporary worsening of symptoms.
6 ADVERSE REACTIONS
Due to lack of randomized, controlled clinical trials of epinephrine for the treatment of anaphylaxis, the true incidence of adverse reactions associated with the systemic use of epinephrine is difficult to determine. Adverse reactions reported in observational trials, case reports, and studies are listed below.
Common adverse reactions to systemically administered epinephrine include anxiety; apprehensiveness; restlessness; tremor; weakness; dizziness; sweating; palpitations; pallor; nausea and vomiting; headache; and/or respiratory difficulties. These symptoms occur in some persons receiving therapeutic doses of epinephrine, but are more likely to occur in patients with hypertension or hyperthyroidism [ see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS ( 5.5) ].
Arrhythmias, including fatal ventricular fibrillation, have been reported, particularly in patients with underlying cardiac disease or those receiving certain drugs [ see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS ( 5.5) and DRUG INTERACTIONS ( 7) ].
Rapid rises in blood pressure have produced cerebral hemorrhage, particularly in elderly patients with cardiovascular disease [ see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS ( 5.5) ].
Angina may occur in patients with coronary artery disease [ see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS ( 5.5) ].
Rare cases of stress cardiomyopathy have been reported in patients treated with epinephrine.
Accidental injection into the digits, hands or feet may result in loss of blood flow to the affected area [ see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS ( 5.2) ].
Adverse events experienced as a result of accidental injections may include increased heart rate, local reactions including injection site pallor, coldness and hypoesthesia or injury at the injection site resulting in bruising, bleeding, discoloration, erythema or skeletal injury.
Injection of epinephrine into the buttock has resulted in cases of gas gangrene [ see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS ( 5.2) ].
Rare cases of serious skin and soft tissue infections, including necrotizing fasciitis and myonecrosis caused by Clostridia (gas gangrene), have been reported at the injection site following epinephrine injection in the thigh [ see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS ( 5.2) ].
7 DRUG INTERACTIONS
Patients who receive epinephrine while concomitantly taking cardiac glycosides, diuretics, or anti-arrhythmics should be observed carefully for the development of cardiac arrhythmias [ see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS ( 5.5) ].
The effects of epinephrine may be potentiated by tricyclic antidepressants, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, levothyroxine sodium, and certain antihistamines, notably chlorpheniramine, tripelennamine, and diphenhydramine.
The cardiostimulating and bronchodilating effects of epinephrine are antagonized by beta-adrenergic blocking drugs, such as propranolol.
The vasoconstricting and hypertensive effects of epinephrine are antagonized by alpha-adrenergic blocking drugs, such as phentolamine.
Ergot alkaloids may also reverse the pressor effects of epinephrine.
8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS
Teratogenic Effects: Pregnancy Category C.
There are no adequate and well controlled studies of the acute effect of epinephrine in pregnant women.
Epinephrine was teratogenic in rabbits, mice and hamsters. Epinephrine should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus (fetal anoxia, spontaneous abortion, or both).
Epinephrine has been shown to have teratogenic effects when administered subcutaneously in rabbits at approximately 30 times the maximum recommended daily subcutaneous or intramuscular dose (on a mg/m 2 basis at a maternal dose of 1.2 mg/kg/day for two to three days), in mice at approximately 7 times the maximum daily subcutaneous or intramuscular dose (on a mg/m 2 basis at a maternal subcutaneous dose of 1 mg/kg/day for 10 days), and in hamsters at approximately 5 times the maximum recommended daily subcutaneous or intramuscular dose (on a mg/m 2 basis at a maternal subcutaneous dose of 0.5 mg/kg/day for 4 days).
These effects were not seen in mice at approximately 3 times the maximum recommended daily subcutaneous or intramuscular dose (on a mg/m 2 basis at a subcutaneous maternal dose of 0.5 mg/kg/day for 10 days).
8.3 NURSING MOTHERS
It is not known whether epinephrine is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when AUVI-Q is administered to a nursing woman.
8.4 PEDIATRIC USE
AUVI-Q may be administered to pediatric patients at a dosage appropriate to body weight [ see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION ( 2) ]. Clinical experience with the use of epinephrine suggests that the adverse reactions seen in children are similar in nature and extent to those both expected and reported in adults. Since the doses of epinephrine delivered from AUVI-Q are fixed, consider using other forms of injectable epinephrine if doses lower than 0.1 mg are deemed necessary.
8.5 GERIATRIC USE
Clinical studies of AUVI-Q did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. Epinephrine should be administered with caution in elderly individuals, who may be at greater risk for developing adverse reactions after epinephrine administration [ see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS ( 5.5), OVERDOSAGE ( 10) ].
Overdosage of epinephrine may produce extremely elevated arterial pressure, which may result in cerebrovascular hemorrhage, particularly in elderly patients. Overdosage may also result in pulmonary edema because of peripheral vascular constriction together with cardiac stimulation. Treatment consists of rapidly acting vasodilators or alpha-adrenergic blocking drugs and/or respiratory support.
Epinephrine overdosage can also cause transient bradycardia followed by tachycardia, and these may be accompanied by potentially fatal cardiac arrhythmias. Premature ventricular contractions may appear within one minute after injection and may be followed by multifocal ventricular tachycardia (prefibrillation rhythm). Subsidence of the ventricular effects may be followed by atrial tachycardia and occasionally by atrioventricular block. Treatment of arrhythmias consists of administration of a beta-adrenergic blocking drug such as propranolol.
Overdosage sometimes results in extreme pallor and coldness of the skin, metabolic acidosis, and kidney failure. Suitable corrective measures must be taken in such situations.
AUVI-Q (epinephrine injection, USP) 0.3 mg, 0.15 mg and 0.1 mg is an auto-injector and a combination product containing drug and device components.
AUVI-Q includes audible (electronic voice instructions, beeps) and visible (LED lights) cues for use. The needle automatically retracts after the injection is complete.
Each AUVI-Q 0.3 mg delivers a single dose of 0.3 mg epinephrine from epinephrine injection, USP (0.3 mL) in a sterile solution.
Each AUVI-Q 0.15 mg delivers a single dose of 0.15 mg epinephrine from epinephrine injection, USP (0.15 mL) in a sterile solution.
Each AUVI-Q 0.1 mg delivers a single dose of 0.1 mg epinephrine from epinephrine injection, USP (0.1 mL) in a sterile solution .
AUVI-Q 0.3 mg, AUVI-Q 0.15 mg and AUVI-Q 0.1 mg each contain 0.76 mL epinephrine solution. 0.3 mL, 0.15 mL and 0.1 mL epinephrine solution is dispensed for AUVI-Q 0.3 mg, AUVI-Q 0.15 mg and AUVI-Q 0.1 mg, respectively, when activated. The remaining solution is not available for future use and should be discarded.
Each 0.3 mL in AUVI-Q 0.3 mg contains 0.3 mg epinephrine, 2.3 mg sodium chloride, 0.5 mg sodium bisulfite, hydrochloric acid to adjust pH, and water for injection. The pH range is 2.2–5.0.
Each 0.15 mL in AUVI-Q 0.15 mg contains 0.15 mg epinephrine, 1.2 mg sodium chloride, 0.2 mg sodium bisulfite, hydrochloric acid to adjust pH, and water for injection. The pH range is 2.2–5.0.
Each 0.1 mL in AUVI-Q 0.1 mg contains 0.1 mg epinephrine, 0.78 mg sodium chloride, 0.15 mg sodium bisulfite, hydrochloric acid to adjust pH, and water for injection. The pH range is 2.2–5.0.
Epinephrine is a sympathomimetic catecholamine. Chemically, epinephrine is (-)-3,4-Dihydroxy-α-[(methylamino)methyl]benzyl alcohol with the following structure:
Epinephrine solution deteriorates rapidly on exposure to air or light, turning pink from oxidation to adrenochrome and brown from the formation of melanin.
AUVI-Q is not made with natural rubber latex.
AUVI-Q instructional and safety systems should be thoroughly reviewed with patients and caregivers prior to use [ see PATIENT COUNSELING INFORMATION ( 17.1) ].
All MedLibrary.org resources are included in as near-original form as possible, meaning that the information from the original provider has been rendered here with only typographical or stylistic modifications and not with any substantive alterations of content, meaning or intent.