AYUNA- levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol
Aurobindo Pharma Limited
Cigarette smoking increases the risk of serious cardiovascular events from combination oral contraceptive (COC) use. This risk increases with age, particularly in women over 35 years of age, and with the number of cigarettes smoked. For this reason, COCs, including Ayuna, are contraindicated in women who are over 35 years of age and smoke [see CONTRAINDICATIONS and WARNINGS (1)].
Ayuna (levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol tablets) is a combination oral contraceptive (COC) consisting of 21 orange active tablets, each containing 0.15 mg of levonorgestrel USP, a synthetic progestin and 0.03 mg of ethinyl estradiol USP, an estrogen, and 7 green inert tablets (without hormones).
The structural formulas for the active components are:
Levonorgestrel is chemically 18,19-Dinorpregn-4-en-20-yn-3-one, 13-ethyl-17-hydroxy-,(17α)-(-)-.
Ethinyl Estradiol is 19-nor-17α-pregna-1,3,5(10)-trien-20-yne-3, 17-diol.
Each orange active tablet contains the following inactive ingredients: croscarmellose sodium, FD&C Yellow No. 6 Aluminum Lake, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, and povidone.
Each green inert tablet contains the following inactive ingredients: anhydrous lactose, croscarmellose sodium, FD & C Blue No. 2 Aluminum Lake, ferric oxide (sicovit yellow 10), magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, and povidone.
Combination oral contraceptives prevent pregnancy primarily by suppressing ovulation.
Ayuna is indicated for use by females of reproductive potential to prevent pregnancy.
Ayuna is contraindicated in females who are known to have the following conditions:
- A high risk of arterial or venous thrombotic diseases. Examples include women who are known to:
- Smoke, if over age 35 [see BOXED WARNING and WARNINGS (1)].
- Have current or history of deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism [see WARNINGS (1)].
- Have cerebrovascular disease [see WARNINGS (1)].
- Have coronary artery disease [see WARNINGS (1)].
- Have thrombogenic valvular or thrombogenic rhythm diseases of the heart (for example, subacute bacterial endocarditis with valvular disease, or atrial fibrillation) [see WARNINGS (1)].
- Have inherited or acquired hypercoagulopathies [see WARNINGS (1)].
- Have uncontrolled hypertension or hypertension with vascular disease [see WARNINGS (3)].
- Have diabetes mellitus and are over age 35, diabetes mellitus with hypertension or vascular disease or other end-organ damage, or diabetes mellitus of >20 years duration [see WARNINGS (7)].
- Have headaches with focal neurological symptoms, migraine headaches with aura, or over age 35 with any migraine headaches [see WARNINGS (8)].
- Current diagnosis of, or history of, breast cancer, which may be hormone-sensitive.
- Liver tumors, acute viral hepatitis, or severe (decompensated) cirrhosis [see WARNINGS (2)].
- Use of Hepatitis C drug combinations containing ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir, with or without dasabuvir, due to the potential for ALT elevations [see WARNINGS (5)].
- Undiagnosed abnormal uterine bleeding [see WARNINGS (9)].
- Stop Ayuna if an arterial or venous thrombotic/thromboembolic event occurs.
- Stop Ayuna if there is unexplained loss of vision, proptosis, diplopia, papilledema, or retinal vascular lesions and evaluate for retinal vein thrombosis immediately.
- Discontinue Ayuna during prolonged immobilization. If feasible, stop Ayuna at least four weeks before and through two weeks after major surgery, or other surgeries known to have an elevated risk of thromboembolism.
- Start Ayuna no earlier than four weeks after delivery in females who are not breast-feeding. The risk of postpartum thromboembolism decreases after the third postpartum week, whereas the likelihood of ovulation increases after the third postpartum week.
- Before starting Ayuna evaluate any past medical history or family history of thrombotic or thromboembolic disorders and consider whether the history suggests an inherited or acquired hypercoagulopathy. Ayuna is contraindicated in females with a high risk of arterial or venous thrombotic/thromboembolic diseases (see CONTRAINDICATIONS).
COCs increase the risk of cardiovascular events and cerebrovascular events, such as myocardial infarction and stroke. The risk is greater among older women (> 35 years of age), smokers, and females with hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, or obesity.
Ayuna is contraindicated in women over 35 years of age who smoke (see CONTRAINDICATIONS). Cigarette smoking increases the risk of serious cardiovascular events from COC use. This risk increases with age, particularly in women over 35 years of age, and with the number of cigarettes smoked.
Use of COCs increases the risk of venous thromboembolic events (VTEs), such as deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Risk factors for VTEs include smoking, obesity, and family history of VTE, in addition to other factors that contraindicate use of COCs (see CONTRAINDICATIONS). While the increased risk of VTE associated with use of COCs is well-established, the rates of VTE are even greater during pregnancy, and especially during the postpartum period (see Figure 1). The rate of VTE in females using COCs has been estimated to be 3 to 9 cases per 10,000 woman-years.
The risk of VTE is highest during the first year of use of a COC and when restarting hormonal contraception after a break of four weeks or longer. Based on results from a few studies, there is some evidence that this is true for non-oral products as well. The risk of thromboembolic disease due to COCs gradually disappears after COC use is discontinued.
Figure 1 shows the risk of developing a VTE for females who are not pregnant and do not use oral contraceptives, for females who use oral contraceptives, for pregnant females, and for females in the postpartum period. To put the risk of developing a VTE into perspective: If 10,000 females who are not pregnant and do not use oral contraceptives are followed for one year, between 1 and 5 of these females will develop a VTE.
Figure 1: Likelihood of Developing a VTE
Elevated Liver Enzymes
Ayuna is contraindicated in females with acute viral hepatitis or severe (decompensated) cirrhosis of liver (see CONTRAINDICATIONS). Discontinue Ayuna if jaundice develops. Acute liver test abnormalities may necessitate the discontinuation of COC use until the liver tests return to normal and COC causation has been excluded.
Ayuna is contraindicated in females with benign or malignant liver tumors (see CONTRAINDICATIONS). COCs increase the risk of hepatic adenomas. An estimate of the attributable risk is 3.3 cases/100,000 COC users. Rupture of hepatic adenomas may cause death from abdominal hemorrhage.
Studies have shown an increased risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma in long-term (> 8 years) COC users. The attributable risk of liver cancers in COC users is less than one case per million users.
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