Ayuna (Page 2 of 7)
Ayuna is contraindicated in females with uncontrolled hypertension or hypertension with vascular disease (see CONTRAINDICATIONS). For all females, including those with well-controlled hypertension, monitor blood pressure at routine visits and stop Ayuna if blood pressure rises significantly.
An increase in blood pressure has been reported in females using COCs, and this increase is more likely in older women with extended duration of use. The effect of COCs on blood pressure may vary according to the progestin in the COC.
4. Age-related Considerations
The risk for cardiovascular disease and prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease increase with age. Certain conditions, such as smoking and migraine headache without aura, that do not contraindicate COC use in younger females, are contraindications to use in women over 35 years of age [see CONTRAINDICATIONS and WARNINGS (1)]. Consider the presence of underlying risk factors that may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease or VTE, particularly before initiating a COC for women over 35 years, such as:
5. Risk of Liver Enzyme Elevations with Concomitant Hepatitis C Treatment
During clinical trials with the Hepatitis C combination drug regimen that contains ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir, with or without dasabuvir, ALT elevations greater than 5 times the upper limit of normal (ULN), including some cases greater than 20 times the ULN, were significantly more frequent in women using ethinyl estradiol-containing medications such as COCs. Discontinue Ayuna prior to starting therapy with the combination drug regimen ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir, with or without dasabuvir (see CONTRAINDICATIONS). Ayuna can be restarted approximately 2 weeks following completion of treatment with the combination drug regimen.
6. Gallbladder Disease
Studies suggest an increased risk of developing gallbladder disease among COC users. Use of COCs may also worsen existing gallbladder disease.
A past history of COC-related cholestasis predicts an increased risk with subsequent COC use. Females with a history of pregnancy-related cholestasis may be at an increased risk for COC-related cholestasis.
7. Adverse Carbohydrate and Lipid Metabolic Effects
Ayuna is contraindicated in diabetic women over age 35, or females who have diabetes with hypertension, nephropathy, retinopathy, neuropathy, other vascular disease, or females with diabetes of > 20 years duration (see CONTRAINDICATIONS). Ayuna may decrease glucose tolerance. Carefully monitor prediabetic and diabetic females who are using Ayuna.
Consider alternative contraception for females with uncontrolled dyslipidemia. Ayuna may cause adverse lipid changes.
Females with hypertriglyceridemia, or a family history thereof, may have an increase in serum triglyceride concentrations when using Ayuna, which may increase the risk of pancreatitis.
Ayuna is contraindicated in females who have headaches with focal neurological symptoms or have migraine headaches with aura, and in women over age 35 years who have migraine headaches with or without aura (see CONTRAINDICATIONS).
If a woman using Ayuna develops new headaches that are recurrent, persistent, or severe, evaluate the cause and discontinue Ayuna if indicated. Consider discontinuation of Ayuna if there is an increased frequency or severity of migraines during COC use (which may be prodromal of a cerebrovascular event).
9. Bleeding Irregularities and Amenorrhea
Unscheduled Bleeding and Spotting
Females using Ayuna may experience unscheduled (breakthrough or intracyclic) bleeding and spotting, especially during the first three months of use. Bleeding irregularities may resolve over time or by changing to a different contraceptive product. If bleeding persists or occurs after previously regular cycles, evaluate for causes such as pregnancy or malignancy.
In two clinical trials of Ayuna (1084 subjects reporting for a total of 8186 treatment cycles and 238 subjects reporting for a total of 1102 treatment cycles), breakthrough bleeding occurred in 6.9% and 8.1% of reported cycles, and spotting occurred in 8.6% and 7.9% of reported cycles over the total study duration, respectively. In the two trials, intermenstrual bleeding (i.e., breakthrough bleeding and/or spotting) occurred in 13.1% and 12.9% of reported cycles over the total study duration, respectively. In one trial, 33 subjects out of 1084 (3.0%) discontinued due to bleeding irregularities (i.e., breakthrough bleeding and spotting); in the other trial, 6 subjects out of 238 (2.5%) discontinued due to bleeding irregularities.
Amenorrhea and Oligomenorrhea
Females who use Ayuna may experience absence of scheduled (withdrawal) bleeding, even if they are not pregnant. In two clinical trials of Ayuna, one including 8186 reported treatment cycles, and the other including 1102 reported treatment cycles, amenorrhea occurred in 1.5% of treatment cycles in each trial.
If scheduled bleeding does not occur, consider the possibility of pregnancy. If the patient has not adhered to the prescribed dosing schedule (missed one or two active tablets or started taking them on a day later than she should have), consider the possibility of pregnancy at the time of the first missed period and perform appropriate diagnostic measures. If the patient has adhered to the prescribed dosing schedule and misses two consecutive periods, rule out pregnancy.
After discontinuation of a COC, amenorrhea or oligomenorrhea may occur, especially if these conditions were pre-existent.
Carefully observe females with a history of depression and discontinue Ayuna if depression recurs to a serious degree. Data on the association of COCs with onset of depression or exacerbation of existing depression are limited.
11. Malignant Neoplasms
Ayuna is contraindicated in females who currently have or have had breast cancer because breast cancer may be hormonally sensitive [see Contraindications].
Epidemiology studies have not found a consistent association between use of combined oral contraceptives (COCs) and breast cancer risk. Studies do not show an association between ever (current or past) use of COCs and risk of breast cancer. However, some studies report a small increase in the risk of breast cancer among current or recent users (<6 months since last use) and current users with longer duration of COC use (see ADVERSE REACTIONS, Postmarketing Experience).
Some studies suggest that COCs are associated with an increase in the risk of cervical cancer or intraepithelial neoplasia. There is controversy about the extent to which these findings are due to differences in sexual behavior and other factors.
12. Effect on Binding Globulins
The estrogen component of Ayuna may raise the serum concentrations of thyroxine-binding globulin, sex hormone-binding globulin, and cortisol-binding globulin. The dose of replacement thyroid hormone or cortisol therapy may need to be increased.
13. Hereditary Angioedema
In females with hereditary angioedema, exogenous estrogens may induce or exacerbate symptoms of angioedema.
Chloasma may occur with Ayuna use, especially in females with a history of chloasma gravidarum. Advise females with a history of chloasma to avoid exposure to the sun or ultraviolet radiation while using Ayuna.
1. Lipid Disorders
Women who are being treated for hyperlipidemias should be followed closely if they elect to use oral contraceptives. Some progestogens may elevate LDL levels and may render the control of hyperlipidemias more difficult [see WARNINGS (7)].
In patients with familial defects of lipoprotein metabolism receiving estrogen-containing preparations, there have been case reports of significant elevations of plasma triglycerides leading to pancreatitis.
2. Fluid Retention
Oral contraceptives may cause some degree of fluid retention. They should be prescribed with caution, and only with careful monitoring, in patients with conditions which might be aggravated by fluid retention.
3. Gastrointestinal Motility
Diarrhea and/or vomiting may reduce hormone absorption (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).
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