Azelastine Hydrochloride and Fluticasone Propionate (Page 3 of 9)

Long-Term (12-Month) Safety Trial in Adults and Adolescents 12 Years of Age and Older

In the 12-month open-label, active-controlled clinical trial, 404 Asian patients (240 males and 164 females) with perennial allergic rhinitis or vasomotor rhinitis were treated with azelastine hydrochloride and fluticasone propionate nasal spray, 1 spray per nostril twice daily.

In the 12-month, open-label, active-controlled, long-term safety trial in adults and adolescents 12 years of age and older, 404 patients with perennial allergic rhinitis or vasomotor rhinitis were treated with azelastine hydrochloride and fluticasone propionate nasal spray 1 spray per nostril twice daily and 207 patients were treated with fluticasone propionate nasal spray, 2 sprays per nostril once daily. Overall, adverse reactions were 47% in the azelastine hydrochloride and fluticasone propionate nasal spray treatment group and 44% in the fluticasone propionate nasal spray group. The most frequently reported adverse reactions (≥ 2%) with azelastine hydrochloride and fluticasone propionate nasal spray were headache, pyrexia, cough, nasal congestion, rhinitis, dysgeusia, viral infection, upper respiratory tract infection, pharyngitis, pain, diarrhea, and epistaxis. In the azelastine hydrochloride and fluticasone propionate nasal spray treatment group, 7 patients (2%) had mild epistaxis and 1 patient (< 1%) had moderate epistaxis. In the fluticasone propionate nasal spray treatment group 1 patient (< 1%) had mild epistaxis. No patients had reports of severe epistaxis. Focused nasal examinations were performed and no nasal ulcerations or septal perforations were observed. Eleven of 404 patients (3%) treated with azelastine hydrochloride and fluticasone propionate nasal spray and 6 of 207 patients (3%) treated with fluticasone propionate nasal spray discontinued from the trial due to adverse reactions.

Long-Term (3-Month) Safety Trial in Pediatric Patients 6-11 Years of Age

In the 3-month open label active-controlled clinical trial, 264 patients (60% male, 40% female) (80% white, 19% black, 4% Asian and 2% other) with allergic rhinitis were treated with azelastine hydrochloride and fluticasone propionate nasal spray, 1 spray per nostril twice daily.

In the 3-month, open label, active-controlled, safety trial in pediatric patients 6-11 years of age 264 patients (128 patients ≥ 6 to < 9 years of age, and 136 patients ≥ 9 to < 12 years of age) with allergic rhinitis (based on the Investigator’s assessment) were treated with azelastine hydrochloride and fluticasone propionate nasal spray, 1 spray per nostril twice daily and 89 patients (44 patients ≥ 6 to < 9 years of age, and 45 patients ≥ 9 to < 12 years of age) were treated with fluticasone propionate nasal spray, 1 spray per nostril twice daily. Overall, adverse reactions were 40% in the azelastine hydrochloride and fluticasone propionate nasal spray treatment group and 36% in the fluticasone propionate nasal spray group. The most frequently reported adverse reactions (≥ 2%) with azelastine hydrochloride and fluticasone propionate nasal spray were epistaxis, headache, oropharyngeal pain, vomiting, upper abdominal pain, cough, pyrexia, otitis media, upper respiratory tract infection, diarrhea, nausea, otitis externa, and urticaria. In the azelastine hydrochloride and fluticasone propionate nasal spray treatment group 23 patients (9%) had mild epistaxis and 3 patients (1%) had moderate epistaxis. In the fluticasone propionate nasal spray treatment group 8 patients (9%) had mild epistaxis. No patients had reports of severe epistaxis. Focused nasal examinations were performed and no ulcerations or septal perforations were observed. Four of 264 patients (2%) treated with azelastine hydrochloride and fluticasone propionate nasal spray and 3 of 89 (3%) treated with fluticasone propionate nasal spray discontinued from the trial due to adverse reactions. There were two reports of somnolence, one severe, among children taking azelastine hydrochloride and fluticasone propionate nasal spray [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].

6.2 Postmarketing Experience

The following spontaneous adverse reactions have been reported with azelastine hydrochloride and fluticasone propionate nasal spray or one of the components (azelastine and fluticasone). Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.

Cardiac Disorders: atrial fibrillation, increased heart rate, palpitations

Eye Disorder: blurred vision, cataracts, conjunctivitis, dryness and irritation, eye swelling, glaucoma, increased intraocular pressure, vision abnormal, xerophthalmia

Gastrointestinal Disorders: nausea, vomiting

General Disorders and Administration Site Condition: aches and pain, application site irritation, chest pain, edema of face and tongue, fatigue, tolerance

Immune System Disorders: anaphylaxis/anaphylactoid reactions which in rare instances were severe, hypersensitivity reactions

Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue Disorders: growth suppression [see Use in Specific Populations (8.4)]

Nervous System Disorders: disturbance or loss of smell and/ or taste, dizziness, involuntary muscle contractions, paresthesia, parosmia

Psychiatric Disorders: anxiety, confusion, nervousness

Renal and Urinary Disorders: urinary retention

Respiratory, Thoracic and Mediastinal Disorders: bronchospasm, cough, dysphonia, dyspnea, hoarseness, nasal septal perforation, nasal discomfort, nasal dryness, nasal sores, nasal ulcer, sore throat, throat dryness and irritation, voice changes, wheezing

Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorder: angioedema, erythema, face swelling, pruritus, rash, urticaria

Vascular Disorder: hypertension

7 DRUG INTERACTIONS

No formal drug interaction studies have been performed with azelastine hydrochloride and fluticasone propionate nasal spray. The drug interactions of the combination are expected to reflect those of the individual components.

7.1 Central Nervous System Depressants

Concurrent use of azelastine hydrochloride and fluticasone propionate nasal spray with alcohol or other central nervous system depressants should be avoided because somnolence and impairment of central nervous system performance may occur [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].

7.2 Cytochrome P450 3A4

Ritonavir (a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor) significantly increased plasma fluticasone propionate exposure following administration of fluticasone propionate aqueous nasal spray, resulting in significantly reduced serum cortisol concentrations [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. During postmarketing use, there have been reports of clinically significant drug interactions in patients receiving fluticasone propionate and ritonavir, resulting in systemic corticosteroid effects including Cushing syndrome and adrenal suppression. Therefore, coadministration of fluticasone propionate and ritonavir is not recommended unless the potential benefit to the patient outweighs the risk of systemic corticosteroid side effects.

Ketoconazole (also a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor), administered in multiple 200 mg doses to steady-state, increased plasma exposure of fluticasone propionate, reduced plasma cortisol AUC, but had no effect on urinary excretion of cortisol, following administration of a single 1000 mcg dose of fluticasone propionate by oral inhalation route.

Caution should be exercised when azelastine hydrochloride and fluticasone propionate nasal spray is coadministered with ketoconazole and other known strong CYP3A4 inhibitors.

8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

8.1 Pregnancy

Risk Summary

Limited data from postmarketing experience with azelastine hydrochloride and fluticasone propionate nasal spray in pregnant women have not identified any drug associated risks of miscarriage, birth defects, or other adverse maternal or fetal outcomes. The individual components of azelastine hydrochloride and fluticasone propionate nasal spray have been marketed for decades. While the data regarding the use of nasal preparations of fluticasone propionate in pregnancy are limited, data from clinical studies of inhaled fluticasone propionate do not indicate an increased risk of adverse maternal or fetal outcomes.

Animal reproduction studies with azelastine hydrochloride and fluticasone propionate nasal spray are not available; however, studies are available with its individual components, azelastine hydrochloride and fluticasone propionate. In animal reproduction studies, there was no evidence of fetal harm in animals at oral doses of azelastine hydrochloride approximately 10 times the clinical daily dose. Oral administration of azelastine hydrochloride to pregnant mice, rats, and rabbits, during the period of organogenesis, produced developmental toxicity that included structural abnormalities, decreased embryo-fetal survival, and decreased fetal body weights at doses 530 times and higher than the maximum recommended human daily nasal dose (MRHDID) of 0.548 mg. However, the relevance of these findings in animals to pregnant women was considered questionable based upon the high animal to human dose multiple.

In animal reproduction studies, fluticasone propionate administered via nose-only inhalation to rats decreased fetal body weight, but did not induce teratogenicity at a maternal toxic dose less than the MRHDID on a mcg/m2 basis. Teratogenicity, characteristic of corticosteroids, decreased fetal body weight and/or skeletal variations, in rats, mice, and rabbits were observed with subcutaneously administered maternal toxic doses of fluticasone propionate less than the MRHDID of 200 mcg on a mcg/m2 basis (see Data). Experience with corticosteroids suggests that rodents are more prone to teratogenic effects from corticosteroids than humans.

The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated populations is unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcomes. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2-4% and 15-20%, respectively.

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