Azelastine Hydrochloride and Fluticasone Propionate (Page 4 of 9)

Data

Animal Data
Azelastine Hydrochloride

In an embryo-fetal development study in mice dosed during the period of organogenesis, azelastine hydrochloride caused embryo-fetal death, structural abnormalities (cleft palate; short or absent tail; fused, absent or branched ribs), delayed ossification, and decreased fetal weight at approximately 610 times the MRHDID in adults (on a mg/m2 basis at a maternal oral dose of 68.6 mg/kg/day), which also caused maternal toxicity as evidenced by decreased maternal body weight. Neither fetal nor maternal effects occurred in mice at approximately 25 times the MRHDID in adults (on a mg/m2 basis at a maternal oral dose of 3 mg/kg/day).

In an embryo-fetal development study in pregnant rats dosed during the period of organogenesis from gestation days 7 to 17, azelastine hydrochloride caused structural abnormalities (oligo-and brachydactylia), delayed ossification, and skeletal variations, in the absence of maternal toxicity, at approximately 530 times the MRHDID in adults (on a mg/m2 basis at a maternal oral dose of 30 mg/kg/day). Azelastine hydrochloride caused embryo-fetal death and decreased fetal weight and severe maternal toxicity at approximately 1200 times the MRHDID (on a mg/m2 basis at a maternal oral dose of 68.6 mg/kg/day). Neither fetal nor maternal effects occurred at approximately 55 times the MRHDID (on a mg/m2 basis at a maternal oral dose of 3 mg/kg/day).

In an embryo-fetal development study in pregnant rabbits dosed during the period of organogenesis from gestation days 6 to 18, azelastine hydrochloride caused abortion, delayed ossification and decreased fetal weight and severe maternal toxicity at approximately 1100 times the MRHDID in adults (on a mg/m2 basis at a maternal oral dose of 30 mg/kg/day). Neither fetal nor maternal effects occurred at approximately 10 times the MRHDID (on a mg/m2 basis at a maternal oral dose of 0.3 mg/kg/day).

In a prenatal and postnatal development study in pregnant rats dosed from late in the gestation period and through the lactation period from gestation day 17 through lactation day 21, azelastine hydrochloride produced no adverse developmental effects on pups at maternal doses up to approximately 530 times the MRHDID (on mg/m2 basis at a maternal dose of 30 mg/kg/day).

Fluticasone Propionate

In embryofetal development studies with pregnant rats and mice dosed by the subcutaneous route throughout the period of organogenesis, fluticasone propionate was teratogenic in both species. Omphalocele, decreased body weight, and skeletal variations were observed in rat fetuses, in the presence of maternal toxicity, at a dose approximately 5 times the MRHDID (on a mg/m2 basis with a maternal subcutaneous dose of 100 mcg/kg/day). Neither fetal nor maternal effects occurred in rats at approximately 1 times the MRHDID (on a mg/m2 basis with a maternal subcutaneous dose of 30 mcg/kg/day). Cleft palate and fetal skeletal variations were observed in mouse fetuses at a dose approximately 1 times the MRHDID (on a mg/m2 basis with a maternal subcutaneous dose of 45 mcg/kg/day). Neither fetal nor maternal effects occurred in mice with a dose approximately 0.4 times the MRHDID (on a mg/m2 basis with a maternal subcutaneous dose of 15 mcg/kg/day).

In an embryofetal development study with pregnant rats dosed by the nose-only inhalation route throughout the period of organogenesis, fluticasone propionate produced decreased fetal body weights and skeletal variations, in the presence of maternal toxicity, at a dose approximately 1 times the MRHDID (on a mg/m2 basis with a maternal nose-only inhalation dose of 25.7 mcg/kg/day); however, there was no evidence of teratogenicity. Neither fetal nor maternal effects occurred in rats with a dose approximately 0.25 times the MRHDID (on a mg/m2 basis with a maternal nose-only inhalation dose of 5.5 mcg/kg/day).

In an embryofetal development study in pregnant rabbits that were dosed by the subcutaneous route throughout organogenesis, fluticasone propionate produced reductions of fetal body weights, in the presence of maternal toxicity, at doses approximately 0.06 times the MRHDID and higher (on a mg/m2 basis with a maternal subcutaneous dose of 0.57 mcg/kg/day). Teratogenicity was evident based upon a finding of cleft palate for 1 fetus at dose approximately 0.4 times the MRHDID (on a mg/m2 basis with a maternal subcutaneous dose of 4 mcg/kg/day). Neither fetal nor maternal effects occurred in rabbits with a dose approximately 0.01 times the MRHDID (on a mg/m2 basis with a maternal subcutaneous dose of 0.08 mcg/kg/day).

Fluticasone propionate crossed the placenta following subcutaneous administration to mice and rats and oral administration to rabbits.

In a pre- and post-natal development study in pregnant rats dosed from late gestation through delivery and lactation (Gestation Day 17 to Postpartum Day 22), fluticasone propionate was not associated with decreases in pup body weight, and had no effects on developmental landmarks, learning, memory, reflexes, or fertility at doses up to 2 times the MRHDID (on a mg/m2 basis with maternal subcutaneous doses up to 50 mcg/kg/day).

8.2 Lactation

Risk Summary

There are no available data on the presence of azelastine hydrochloride or fluticasone propionate in human milk, the effects on the breastfed infant, or the effects on milk production. Breastfed infants should be monitored for signs of milk rejection during azelastine hydrochloride and fluticasone propionate nasal spray use by lactating women (see Clinical Considerations). Fluticasone propionate is present in rat milk (see Data). Other corticosteroids have been detected in human milk. However, fluticasone propionate concentrations in plasma after nasal therapeutic doses are low and therefore concentrations in human breast milk are likely to be correspondingly low [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for azelastine hydrochloride and fluticasone propionate nasal spray and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from azelastine hydrochloride and fluticasone propionate nasal spray or from the underlying maternal condition.

Clinical Considerations

Monitoring for Adverse Reactions

Breastfed infants of lactating women treated with azelastine hydrochloride and fluticasone propionate nasal spray should be monitored for possible signs of milk rejection related to the bitter taste of azelastine hydrochloride.

Data

Subcutaneous administration of 10 mcg/kg of tritiated fluticasone propionate to lactating rats resulted in measurable radioactivity in the milk.

8.4 Pediatric Use

The safety and effectiveness of azelastine hydrochloride and fluticasone propionate nasal spray for seasonal allergic rhinitis have been established in pediatric patients aged 6 years and older. Use of azelastine hydrochloride and fluticasone propionate nasal spray for this indication in pediatric patients 6 to 11 years of age is supported by evidence from controlled clinical trials (416 patients 6 to 11 years of age with allergic rhinitis were treated with azelastine hydrochloride and fluticasone propionate nasal spray) [see Adverse Reactions (6.1) and Clinical Studies (14)].

Sixty-one patients ages 4-5 years of age were treated with azelastine hydrochloride and fluticasone propionate nasal spray in the pediatric studies described above. Safety findings in children 4-5 years of age were similar to those in children 6-11 years of age, but effectiveness has not been established.

Safety and effectiveness of azelastine hydrochloride and fluticasone propionate nasal spray have not been established in pediatric patients below the age of 4 years.

Controlled clinical studies have shown that nasal corticosteroids may cause a reduction in growth velocity in pediatric patients. This effect has been observed in the absence of laboratory evidence of HPA axis suppression, suggesting that growth velocity is a more sensitive indicator of systemic corticosteroid exposure in pediatric patients than some commonly used tests of HPA axis function. The long-term effects of this reduction in growth velocity associated with nasal corticosteroids, including the impact on final adult height, are unknown. The potential for “catch-up” growth following discontinuation of treatment with nasal corticosteroids has not been adequately studied. The growth of pediatric patients receiving nasal corticosteroids, including azelastine hydrochloride and fluticasone propionate nasal spray, should be monitored routinely (e.g., via stadiometry). The potential growth effects of prolonged treatment should be weighed against the clinical benefits obtained and the risks/benefits of treatment alternatives.

All MedLibrary.org resources are included in as near-original form as possible, meaning that the information from the original provider has been rendered here with only typographical or stylistic modifications and not with any substantive alterations of content, meaning or intent.

This site is provided for educational and informational purposes only, in accordance with our Terms of Use, and is not intended as a substitute for the advice of a medical doctor, nurse, nurse practitioner or other qualified health professional.

Privacy Policy | Copyright © 2022. All Rights Reserved.