Azelastine Hydrochloride and Fluticasone Propionate (Page 6 of 9)
Based on intravenous and oral administration, the steady-state volume of distribution of azelastine hydrochloride is 14.5 L/kg. In vitro studies with human plasma indicate that the plasma protein binding of azelastine hydrochloride and its metabolite, desmethylazelastine, are approximately 88% and 97%, respectively.
Following intravenous administration, the initial disposition phase for fluticasone propionate was rapid and consistent with its high lipid solubility and tissue binding. The volume of distribution averaged 4.2 L/kg.
The percentage of fluticasone propionate bound to human plasma proteins averaged 91% with no obvious concentration relationship. Fluticasone propionate is weakly and reversibly bound to erythrocytes and freely equilibrates between erythrocytes and plasma. Fluticasone propionate is not significantly bound to human transcortin.
Following nasal administration of azelastine hydrochloride and fluticasone propionate nasal spray, the elimination half-life of azelastine hydrochloride is approximately 25 hours. Approximately 75% of an oral dose of radiolabeled azelastine hydrochloride was excreted in the feces with less than 10% as unchanged azelastine.
Following intravenous dosing, fluticasone propionate showed polyexponential kinetics and had a terminal elimination half-life of approximately 7.8 hours. Less than 5% of a radiolabeled oral dose was excreted in the urine as metabolites, with the remainder excreted in the feces as parent drug and metabolites.
Azelastine hydrochloride is oxidatively metabolized to the principal active metabolite, desmethylazelastine, by the cytochrome P450 enzyme system. The specific P450 isoforms responsible for the biotransformation of azelastine have not been identified. The total clearance of azelastine is approximately 0.50 L/kg/hr.
For fluticasone propionate, the only circulating metabolite detected in man is the 17β-carboxylic acid derivative, which is formed through the CYP3A4 pathway. This inactive metabolite had less affinity (approximately 1/2,000) than the parent drug for the glucocorticoid receptor of human lung cytosol in vitro and negligible pharmacological activity in animal studies. Other metabolites detected in vitro using cultured human hepatoma cells have not been detected in man. The average total clearance of fluticasone propionate is relatively high (approximately 66 L/hr).
Azelastine hydrochloride and fluticasone propionate nasal spray was not studied in any specific populations, and no gender-specific pharmacokinetic data have been obtained.
Following oral administration of azelastine hydrochloride, pharmacokinetic parameters were not influenced by hepatic impairment, age, or gender. The effect of race has not been evaluated.
Patient with Renal Impairment
Based on oral, single-dose studies of azelastine hydrochloride, renal impairment (creatinine clearance < 50 mL/min) resulted in a 70-75% higher Cmax and AUC compared to healthy subjects. Time to maximum concentration was unchanged.
Drug Interaction Studies
No formal drug interaction studies have been performed with azelastine hydrochloride and fluticasone propionate nasal spray. The drug interactions of the combination are expected to reflect those of the individual components.
Coadministration of orally administered azelastine (4 mg twice daily) with erythromycin (500 mg three times daily for 7 days) resulted in Cmax of 5.36 ± 2.6 ng/mL and AUC of 49.7 ± 24 ng•h/mL for azelastine, whereas, administration of azelastine alone resulted in Cmax of 5.57 ± 2.7 ng/mL and AUC of 48.4 ± 24 ng•h/mL for azelastine.
In another multiple-dose drug interaction study, coadministration of orally inhaled fluticasone propionate (500 mcg twice daily) and erythromycin (333 mg three times daily) did not affect fluticasone propionate pharmacokinetics.
Cimetidine and Ranitidine
In a multiple-dose, steady-state drug interaction trial in healthy subjects, cimetidine (400 mg twice daily) increased orally administered mean azelastine hydrochloride (4 mg twice daily) concentrations by approximately 65%. Coadministration of orally administered azelastine hydrochloride (4 mg twice daily) with ranitidine hydrochloride (150 mg twice daily) resulted in Cmax of 8.89 ± 3.28 ng/mL and AUC of 88.22 ± 40.43 ng•h/mL for azelastine hydrochloride, whereas, administration of azelastine hydrochloride alone resulted in Cmax of 7.83 ± 4.06 ng/mL and AUC of 80.09 ± 43.55 ng•h/mL for azelastine hydrochloride.
No significant pharmacokinetic interaction was observed with the coadministration of an oral 4 mg dose of azelastine hydrochloride twice daily and theophylline 300 mg or 400 mg twice daily.
Coadministration of fluticasone propionate and the strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, ritonavir, is not recommended based upon a multiple-dose, crossover drug interaction study in 18 healthy subjects. Fluticasone propionate aqueous nasal spray (200 mcg once daily) was coadministered for 7 days with ritonavir (100 mg twice daily). Plasma fluticasone propionate concentrations following fluticasone propionate aqueous nasal spray alone were undetectable (< 10 pg/mL) in most subjects, and when concentrations were detectable, peak levels (Cmax ) averaged 11.9 pg/mL (range, 10.8 to 14.1 pg/mL) and AUC(0-τ) averaged 8.43 pg•hr/mL (range, 4.2 to 18.8 pg•hr/mL). Fluticasone propionate Cmax and AUC(0-τ) increased to 318 pg/mL (range, 110 to 648 pg/mL) and 3,102.6 pg•hr/mL (range, 1,207.1 to 5,662.0 pg•hr/mL), respectively, after coadministration of ritonavir with fluticasone propionate aqueous nasal spray. This significant increase in plasma fluticasone propionate exposure resulted in a significant decrease (86%) in plasma cortisol area under the plasma concentration versus time curve (AUC).
Caution should be exercised when other strong CYP3A4 inhibitors are coadministered with fluticasone propionate. In a drug interaction study, coadministration of orally inhaled fluticasone propionate (1,000 mcg) and ketoconazole (200 mg once daily) resulted in increased fluticasone propionate exposure and reduced plasma cortisol AUC, but had no effect on urinary excretion of cortisol [see Drug Interactions (7.2)].
13 NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY
13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
Azelastine Hydrochloride and Fluticasone Propionate Nasal Spray
No studies of carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, or impairment of fertility were conducted with azelastine hydrochloride and fluticasone propionate nasal spray; however, studies are available for the individual active components, azelastine hydrochloride and fluticasone propionate, as described below.
Two-year carcinogenicity studies in Crl:CD(SD)BR rats and NMRI mice were conducted to assess the carcinogenic potential of azelastine hydrochloride. No evidence of tumorigenicity was observed in rats at doses up to 30 mg/kg/day (approximately 530 and 240 times the MRHDID for adults and children, respectively, on a mg/m2 basis). No evidence for tumorigenicity was observed in mice at doses up to 25 mg/kg (approximately 220 and 100 times the MRHDID for adults and children, respectively, on a mg/m2 basis).
Azelastine hydrochloride showed no genotoxic effects in the Ames test, DNA repair test, mouse lymphoma forward mutation assay, mouse micronucleus test, or chromosomal aberration test in rat bone marrow.
There were no effects on male or female fertility and reproductive in male and female rats at oral doses up to 30 mg/kg (approximately 530 times the MRHDID in adults on a mg/m2 basis). At 68.6 mg/kg (approximately 1200 times the MRHDID on a mg/m2 basis), the duration of estrous cycles was prolonged and copulatory activity and the number of pregnancies were decreased. The numbers of corpora lutea and implantations were decreased; however, pre-implantation loss was not increased.
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