AZITHROMYCIN — azithromycin monohydrate injection, powder, lyophilized, for solution
Sun Pharmaceutical Industries Limited
Azithromycin for injection, USP is a macrolide antibacterial drug indicated for the treatment of patients with infections caused by susceptible strains of the designated microorganisms in the conditions listed below.
due to Chlamydophila pneumoniae , Haemophilus influenzae , Legionella pneumophila , Moraxella catarrhalis , Mycoplasma pneumoniae , Staphylococcus aureus , or Streptococcus pneumoniae in patients who require initial intravenous therapy.
due to Chlamydia trachomatis , Neisseria gonorrhoeae , or Mycoplasma hominis in patients who require initial intravenous therapy. If anaerobic microorganisms are suspected of contributing to the infection, an antimicrobial agent with anaerobic activity should be administered in combination with azithromycin.
Azithromycin for injection, USP
should be followed by azithromycin by the oral route as required. [see Dosage and Administration (2)]
To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of azithromycin and other antibacterial drugs, azithromycin should be used only to treat infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.
The recommended dose of azithromycin for injection for the treatment of adult patients with community-acquired pneumonia due to the indicated organisms is 500 mg as a single daily dose by the intravenous route for at least two days. Intravenous therapy should be followed by azithromycin by the oral route at a single, daily dose of 500 mg, administered as two 250 mg tablets to complete a 7- to 10-day course of therapy. The timing of the switch to oral therapy should be done at the discretion of the physician and in accordance with clinical response.
The recommended dose of azithromycin for injection for the treatment of adult patients with pelvic inflammatory disease due to the indicated organisms is 500 mg as a single daily dose by the intravenous route for one or two days. Intravenous therapy should be followed by azithromycin by the oral route at a single, daily dose of 250 mg to complete a 7-day course of therapy. The timing of the switch to oral therapy should be done at the discretion of the physician and in accordance with clinical response.
The infusate concentration and rate of infusion for azithromycin for injection should be either 1 mg/mL over 3 hr or 2 mg/mL over 1 hr. Azithromycin for injection should not be given as a bolus or as an intramuscular injection.
Prepare the initial solution of azithromycin for injection by adding 4.8 mL of Sterile Water for Injection to the 500 mg vial, and shaking the vial until all of the drug is dissolved. Since azithromycin for injection is supplied under vacuum, it is recommended that a standard 5 mL (non-automated) syringe be used to ensure that the exact amount of 4.8 mL of Sterile Water is dispensed. Each mL of reconstituted solution contains 100 mg azithromycin. Reconstituted solution is stable for 24 hr when stored below 30°C (86°F).
Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter prior to administration. If particulate matter is evident in reconstituted fluids, the drug solution should be discarded.
Dilute this solution further prior to administration as instructed below.
To provide azithromycin over a concentration range of 1 to 2 mg/mL, transfer 5 mL of the 100 mg/mL azithromycin solution into the appropriate amount of any of the diluents listed below:
Normal Saline (0.9% sodium chloride)
1/2 Normal Saline (0.45% sodium chloride)
5% Dextrose in Water Lactated Ringer’s Solution
5% Dextrose in 1/2 Normal Saline (0.45% sodium chloride) with 20 mEq KCl
5% Dextrose in Lactated Ringer’s Solution
5% Dextrose in 1/3 Normal Saline (0.3% sodium chloride)
5% Dextrose in 1/2 Normal Saline (0.45% sodium chloride)
Normosol®* -M in 5% Dextrose
Normosol®* -R in 5% Dextrose
Final Infusion Solution Concentration (mg/mL)Amount of Diluent (mL)
1 mg/mL 500 mL
2 mg/mL 250 mL
Other intravenous substances, additives, or medications should not be added to azithromycin for injection, or infused simultaneously through the same intravenous line.
When diluted according to the instructions (1 mg/mL to 2 mg/mL), azithromycin for injection is stable for 24 hr at or below room temperature 30°C (86°F), or for 7 days if stored under refrigeration 5°C (41°F).
Azithromycin for injection is supplied in lyophilized form in a 10 mL vial equivalent to 500 mg of azithromycin for intravenous administration.
Azithromycin for injection is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to azithromycin, erythromycin, any macrolide or ketolide drugs.
Azithromycin for injection is contraindicated in patients with a history of cholestatic jaundice/hepatic dysfunction associated with prior use of azithromycin.
Serious allergic reactions, including angioedema, anaphylaxis, and dermatologic reactions including Acute Generalized Exanthematous Pustulosis (AGEP), Stevens-Johnson Syndrome, and toxic epidermal necrolysis have been reported in patients on azithromycin therapy. [see Contraindications (4.1)]
Fatalities have been reported. Cases of Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS) have also been reported. Despite initially successful symptomatic treatment of the allergic symptoms, when symptomatic therapy was discontinued, the allergic symptoms recurred soon thereafter in some patients without further azithromycin exposure. These patients required prolonged periods of observation and symptomatic treatment. The relationship of these episodes to the long tissue half-life of azithromycin and subsequent prolonged exposure to antigen is unknown at present.
If an allergic reaction occurs, the drug should be discontinued and appropriate therapy should be instituted. Physicians should be aware that the allergic symptoms may reappear after symptomatic therapy has been discontinued.
Abnormal liver function, hepatitis, cholestatic jaundice, hepatic necrosis, and hepatic failure have been reported, some of which have resulted in death. Discontinue azithromycin immediately if signs and symptoms of hepatitis occur.
Following the use of azithromycin in neonates (treatment up to 42 days of life), IHPS has been reported. Direct parents and caregivers to contact their physician if vomiting or irritability with feeding occurs.
Prolonged cardiac repolarization and QT interval, imparting a risk of developing cardiac arrhythmia and torsades de pointes, have been seen with treatment with macrolides, including azithromycin. Cases of torsades de pointes have been spontaneously reported during postmarketing surveillance in patients receiving azithromycin. Providers should consider the risk of QT prolongation, which can be fatal when weighing the risks and benefits of azithromycin for at-risk groups including:
- patients with known prolongation of the QT interval, a history of torsades de pointes, congenital long QT syndrome, bradyarrhythmias or uncompensated heart failure
- patients on drugs known to prolong the QT interval
- patients with ongoing proarrhythmic conditions such as uncorrected hypokalemia or hypomagnesemia, clinically significant bradycardia, and in patients receiving Class IA (quinidine, procainamide) or Class III (dofetilide, amiodarone, sotalol) antiarrhythmic agents.
Elderly patients may be more susceptible to drug-associated effects on the QT interval.
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