AZITHROMYCIN (Page 4 of 8)

8.5 Geriatric Use

In multiple-dose clinical trials of oral azithromycin, 9% of patients were at least 65 years of age (458/4949) and 3% of patients (144/4949) were at least 75 years of age. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these subjects and younger subjects, and other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in response between the elderly and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out.

Elderly patients may be more susceptible to development of torsades de pointes arrhythmias than younger patients. [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)]

10 OVERDOSAGE

Adverse reactions experienced at higher than recommended doses were similar to those seen at normal doses particularly nausea, diarrhea, and vomiting. In the event of overdosage, general symptomatic and supportive measures are indicated as required.

11 DESCRIPTION

Azithromycin for oral suspension USP contains the active ingredient azithromycin monohydrate, USP, a macrolide antibacterial drug, for oral administration. Azithromycin has the chemical name (2R,3S,4R,5R,8R,10R,11R,12S,13S,14R)-13-[(2,6-dideoxy-3-C-methyl-3-O-methyl-α-L-ribo-hexopyranosyl)oxy]-2-ethyl-3,4,10-trihydroxy-3,5,6,8,10,12,14-heptamethyl-11-[[3,4,6-trideoxy-3-(dimethylamino)-β-D-xylo-hexopyranosyl]oxy]-1-oxa-6-azacyclopentadecan-15-one monohydrate. Azithromycin is derived from erythromycin; however, it differs chemically from erythromycin in that a methyl-substituted nitrogen atom is incorporated into the lactone ring. Its molecular formula is C38 H72 N2 O12 ∙H2 O, and its molecular weight is 767.00. Azithromycin has the following structural formula:

structural-formula

Azithromycin, USP, as the monohydrate, is a white to off-white crystalline powder with a molecular formula of C38 H72 N2 O12 •H2 O and a molecular weight of 767.00.

Azithromycin for Oral Suspension USP is supplied in bottles containing azithromycin monohydrate powder equivalent to 600 mg, or 1200 mg azithromycin, USP per bottle and the following inactive ingredients: colloidal silicon dioxide, FD & C Red No. 40 Aluminum Lake, hydroxypropyl cellulose, sodium phosphate tribasic anhydrous, sucrose, natural and artificial banana flavor, natural and artificial cherry flavor and xanthan gum. After constitution, each 5 mL of suspension contains 200 mg of azithromycin, USP. The dry powder before constitution is off-white to pinkish in color. The suspension after constitution is pink to red in color.

12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

12.1 Mechanism of Action

Azithromycin is a macrolide antibacterial drug. [see Microbiology (12.4)]

12.2 Pharmacodynamics

Based on animal models of infection, the antibacterial activity of azithromycin appears to correlate with the ratio of area under the concentration-time curve to minimum inhibitory concentration (AUC/MIC) for certain pathogens (S. pneumoniae and S. aureus). The principal pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic parameter best associated with clinical and microbiological cure has not been elucidated in clinical trials with azithromycin.

Cardiac Electrophysiology

QTc interval prolongation was studied in a randomized, placebo-controlled parallel trial in 116 healthy subjects who received either chloroquine (1000 mg) alone or in combination with oral azithromycin (500 mg, 1000 mg, and 1500 mg once daily). Co-administration of azithromycin increased the QTc interval in a dose- and concentration-dependent manner. In comparison to chloroquine alone, the maximum mean (95% upper confidence bound) increases in QTcF were 5 (10) ms, 7 (12) ms and 9 (14) ms with the co-administration of 500 mg, 1000 mg and 1500 mg azithromycin, respectively.

12.3 Pharmacokinetics

Following oral administration of a single 500 mg dose (two 250 mg tablets) to 36 fasted healthy male volunteers, the mean (SD) pharmacokinetic parameters were AUC0-72 =4.3 (1.2) mcg∙hr/mL; Cmax =0.5 (0.2) mcg/mL; Tmax =2.2 (0.9) hours. Two azithromycin 250 mg tablets are bioequivalent to a single 500 mg tablet.

In a two-way crossover study, 12 adult healthy volunteers (6 males, 6 females) received 1500 mg of azithromycin administered in single daily doses over either 5 days (two 250 mg tablets on day 1, followed by one 250 mg tablet on days 2 to 5) or 3 days (500 mg per day for days 1 to 3). Due to limited serum samples on day 2 (3 day regimen) and days 2 to 4 (5 day regimen), the serum concentration-time profile of each subject was fit to a 3-compartment model and the AUC0-∞ for the fitted concentration profile was comparable between the 5 day and 3 day regimens.

3-Day Regimen

5-Day Regimen

Pharmacokinetic Parameter [mean (SD)]

Day 1

Day 3

Day 1

Day 5

Cmax (serum, mcg/mL)

0.44 (0.22)

0.54 (0.25)

0.43 (0.20)

0.24 (0.06)

Serum AUC0-∞ (mcg∙hr/mL)

17.4 (6.2)*

14.9 (3.1)*

Serum T½

71.8 hr

68.9 hr

*Total AUC for the entire 3-day and 5 day regimens.

Absorption

The absolute bioavailability of azithromycin 250 mg capsules is 38%.

In a two-way crossover study in which 12 healthy subjects received a single 500 mg dose of azithromycin (two 250 mg tablets) with or without a high fat meal, food was shown to increase Cmax by 23% but had no effect on AUC.

When azithromycin oral suspension was administered with food to 28 adult healthy male subjects, Cmax increased by 56% and AUC was unchanged.

Distribution

The serum protein binding of azithromycin is variable in the concentration range approximating human exposure, decreasing from 51% at 0.02 mcg/mL to 7% at 2 mcg/mL.

The antibacterial activity of azithromycin is pH related and appears to be reduced with decreasing pH, However, the extensive distribution of drug to tissues may be relevant to clinical activity.

Azithromycin has been shown to penetrate into human tissues, including skin, lung, tonsil, and cervix. Extensive tissue distribution was confirmed by examination of additional tissues and fluids (bone, ejaculum, prostate, ovary, uterus, salpinx, stomach, liver, and gallbladder). As there are no data from adequate and well-controlled studies of azithromycin treatment of infections in these additional body sites, the clinical significance of these tissue concentration data is unknown.

Following a regimen of 500 mg on the first day and 250 mg daily for 4 days, very low concentrations were noted in cerebrospinal fluid (less than 0.01 mcg/mL) in the presence of noninflamed meninges.

All MedLibrary.org resources are included in as near-original form as possible, meaning that the information from the original provider has been rendered here with only typographical or stylistic modifications and not with any substantive alterations of content, meaning or intent.

This site is provided for educational and informational purposes only, in accordance with our Terms of Use, and is not intended as a substitute for the advice of a medical doctor, nurse, nurse practitioner or other qualified health professional.

Privacy Policy | Copyright © 2022. All Rights Reserved.