Azithromycin (Page 4 of 6)

11 DESCRIPTION

Azithromycin for injection, USP contains the active ingredient azithromycin, an azalide, a subclass of macrolide antibacterial drug, for intravenous injection. Azithromycin has the chemical name (2R,3S,4R,5R,8R,10R,11R,12S,13S,14R) -13-[(2,6-dideoxy-3- C -methyl-3- O -methyl-α- L-ribo -hexopyranosyl)oxy]-2-ethyl-3,4,10-trihydroxy-3,5,6,8,10,12,14-heptamethyl-11-[[3,4,6-trideoxy-3-(dimethylamino)-β- Dxylo -hexopyranosyl]oxy]-1-oxa-6-azacyclopentadecan-15-one. Azithromycin is derived from erythromycin; however, it differs chemically from erythromycin in that a methyl-substituted nitrogen atom is incorporated into the lactone ring. Its molecular formula is C 38 H 72 N 2 O 12 , and its molecular weight is 749.00. Azithromycin has the following structural formula:

Structural Formula
(click image for full-size original)

Azithromycin, as the monohydrate or dihydrate, is a white crystalline powder with a molecular formula of C 38 H 72 N 2 O 12 •H 2 O or C 38 H 72 N 2 O 12 •2H 2 O and a molecular weight of 767.00 or 785.02 respectively.

Azithromycin for injection, USP consists of azithromycin monohydrate or dihydrate and the following inactive ingredients: citric acid and sodium hydroxide. Azithromycin for injection, USP is supplied in lyophilized form in a 10 mL vial equivalent to 500 mg of azithromycin for intravenous administration. Reconstitution, according to label directions, results in approximately 5 mL of azithromycin for intravenous injection with each mL containing azithromycin monohydrate or dihydrate equivalent to 100 mg of azithromycin.

12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

12.1 Mechanism of Action

Azithromycin is a macrolide antibacterial drug [see Microbiology ( 12.4)].

12.2 Pharmacodynamics

Based on animal models of infection, the antibacterial activity of azithromycin appears to correlate with the ratio of area under the concentration-time curve to minimum inhibitory concentration (AUC/MIC) for certain pathogens ( S. pneumoniae and S. aureus). The principal pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic parameter best associated with clinical and microbiological cure has not been elucidated in clinical trials with azithromycin.

Cardiac Electrophysiology

QTc interval prolongation was studied in a randomized, placebo-controlled parallel trial in 116 healthy subjects who received either chloroquine (1,000 mg) alone or in combination with oral azithromycin (500 mg, 1,000 mg, and 1,500 mg once daily). Co-administration of azithromycin increased the QTc interval in a dose- and concentration-dependent manner. In comparison to chloroquine alone, the maximum mean (95% upper confidence bound) increases in QTcF were 5 (10) ms, 7 (12) ms and 9 (14) ms with the co-administration of 500 mg, 1,000 mg and 1,500 mg azithromycin, respectively.

Since the mean C max of azithromycin following a 500 mg IV dose given over 1 hour is higher than the mean C max of azithromycin following the administration of a 1,500 mg oral dose, it is possible that QTc may be prolonged to a greater extent with IV azithromycin at close proximity to a one hour infusion of 500 mg.

12.3 Pharmacokinetics

In patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia receiving single daily one-hour intravenous infusions for 2 to 5 days of 500 mg azithromycin at a concentration of 2 mg/mL, the mean C max ± S.D. achieved was 3.63 ± 1.60 mcg/mL, while the 24-hour trough level was 0.20 ± 0.15 mcg/mL, and the AUC 24 was 9.60 ± 4.80 mcg•hr/mL.

The mean C max , 24-hour trough and AUC 24 values were 1.14 ± 0.14 mcg/mL, 0.18 ± 0.02 mcg/mL, and 8.03 ±0.86 mcg•hr/mL, respectively, in normal volunteers receiving a 3-hour intravenous infusion of 500 mg azithromycin at a concentration of 1 mg/mL. Similar pharmacokinetic values were obtained in patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia who received the same 3-hour dosage regimen for 2-5 days.

a 500 mg (2 mg/mL) for 2-5 days in community-acquired pneumonia patients.

b 500 mg (1 mg/mL) for 5 days in healthy subjects.

Infusion Concentration, Duration Time after starting the infusion (hr)
0.5 1 2 3 4 6 8 12 24
2 mg/mL, 1 hr a 2.98 ± 1.12 3.63 ± 1.73 0.60 ± 0.31 0.40 ± 0.23 0.33 ± 0.16 0.26 ± 0.14 0.27 ± 0.15 0.20 ± 0.12 0.20 ± 0.15
1 mg/mL, 3 hr b 0.91 ± 0.13 1.02 ± 0.11 1.14 ± 0.13 1.13 ± 0.16 0.32 ± 0.05 0.28 ± 0.04 0.27 ± 0.03 0.22 ± 0.02 0.18 ± 0.02

Comparison of the plasma pharmacokinetic parameters following the 1st and 5th daily doses of 500 mg intravenous azithromycin showed only an 8% increase in C max but a 61% increase in AUC 24 reflecting a threefold rise in C 24 trough levels.

Following single-oral doses of 500 mg azithromycin (two 250 mg capsules) to 12 healthy volunteers, C max , trough level, and AUC 24 were reported to be 0.41 mcg/mL, 0.05 mcg/mL, and 2.6 mcg•h/mL, respectively. These oral values are approximately 38%, 83%, and 52% of the values observed following a single 500 mg I.V. 3-hour infusion (C max ,: 1.08 mcg/mL, trough: 0.06 mcg/mL, and AUC 24 : 5 mcg•h/mL). Thus, plasma concentrations are higher following the intravenous regimen throughout the 24-hour interval.

Distribution

The serum protein binding of azithromycin is variable in the concentration range approximating human exposure, decreasing from 51% at 0.02 mcg/mL to 7% at 2 mcg/mL.

Tissue concentrations have not been obtained following intravenous infusions of azithromycin, but following oral administration in humans azithromycin has been shown to penetrate into tissues, including skin, lung, tonsil, and cervix.

Tissue levels were determined following a single oral dose of 500 mg azithromycin in 7 gynecological patients. Approximately 17 hr after dosing, azithromycin concentrations were 2.7 mcg/g in ovarian tissue, 3.5 mcg/g in uterine tissue, and 3.3 mcg/g in salpinx. Following a regimen of 500 mg on the first day followed by 250 mg daily for 4 days, concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid were less than 0.01 mcg/mL in the presence of non-inflamed meninges.

Metabolism

In vitro and in vivo studies to assess the metabolism of azithromycin have not been performed.

Elimination

Plasma concentrations of azithromycin following single 500 mg oral and IV doses declined in a polyphasic pattern with a mean apparent plasma clearance of 630 mL/min and terminal elimination half-life of 68 hours. The prolonged terminal half-life is thought to be due to extensive uptake and subsequent release of drug from tissues.

In a multiple-dose study in 12 normal volunteers utilizing a 500 mg (1 mg/mL) one-hour intravenous-dosage regimen for five days, the amount of administered azithromycin dose excreted in urine in 24 hours was about 11% after the 1st dose and 14% after the 5th dose. These values are greater than the reported 6% excreted unchanged in urine after oral administration of azithromycin. Biliary excretion is a major route of elimination for unchanged drug, following oral administration.

Specific Populations

Patients with Renal Impairment

Azithromycin pharmacokinetics were investigated in 42 adults (21 to 85 years of age) with varying degrees of renal impairment. Following the oral administration of a single 1,000 mg dose of azithromycin, mean C max and AUC 0-120 increased by 5.1% and 4.2%, respectively in subjects with mild to moderate renal impairment (GFR 10 to 80 mL/min) compared to subjects with normal renal function (GFR > 80 mL/min). The mean C max and AUC 0-120 increased 61% and 35%, respectively in subjects with severe renal impairment (GFR < 10 mL/min) compared to subjects with normal renal function (GFR > 80 mL/min).

Patients with Hepatic Impairment

The pharmacokinetics of azithromycin in subjects with hepatic impairment has not been established.

Male and Female Patients

There are no significant differences in the disposition of azithromycin between male and female subjects. No dosage adjustment is recommended based on gender.

Geriatric Patients

Pharmacokinetic studies with intravenous azithromycin have not been performed in older volunteers. Pharmacokinetics of azithromycin following oral administration in older volunteers (65 to 85 years old) were similar to those in younger volunteers (18 to 40 years old) for the 5-day therapeutic regimen [see Geriatric Use 8.5)].

Pediatric Patients

Pharmacokinetic studies with intravenous azithromycin have not been performed in children.

Drug Interactions Studies

Drug interaction studies were performed with oral azithromycin and other drugs likely to be co-administered. The effects of co-administration of azithromycin on the pharmacokinetics of other drugs are shown in Table 1 and the effects of other drugs on the pharmacokinetics of azithromycin are shown in Table 2.

Co-administration of azithromycin at therapeutic doses had a modest effect on the pharmacokinetics of the drugs listed in Table 1. No dosage adjustment of drugs listed in Table 1 is recommended when co-administered with azithromycin.

Co-administration of azithromycin with efavirenz or fluconazole had a modest effect on the pharmacokinetics of azithromycin. Nelfinavir significantly increased the C max and AUC of azithromycin. No dosage adjustment of azithromycin is recommended when administered with drugs listed in Table 2 [see Drug Interactions ( 7.3)].

Table 1. Drug Interactions: Pharmacokinetic Parameters for Co-administered Drugs in the Presence of Azithromycin

* — 90% Confidence interval not reported

Co-administered Drug Dose of Co-administered Drug Dose of Azithromycin n Ratio (with/without azithromycin) of Co-administered Drug Pharmacokinetic Parameters (90% CI); No Effect = 1
Mean C max Mean AUC
Atorvastatin 10 mg/day for 8 days 500 mg/day orally on days 6 to 8 12 0.83 (0.63 to 1.08) 1.01 (0.81 to 1.25)
Carbamazepine 200 mg/day for 2 days, then 200 mg twice a day for 18 days 500 mg/day orally for days 16 to 18 7 0.97 (0.88 to 1.06) 0.96 (0.88 to 1.06)
Cetirizine 20 mg/day for 11 days 500 mg orally on day 7, then 250 mg/day on days 8 to 11 14 1.03 (0.93 to 1.14) 1.02 (0.92 to 1.13)
Didanosine 200 mg orally twice a day for 21 days 1,200 mg/day orally on days 8 to 21 6 1.44 (0.85 to 2.43) 1.14 (0.83 to 1.57)
Efavirenz 400 mg/day for 7 days 600 mg orally on day 7 14 1.04* 0.95*
Fluconazole 200 mg orally single dose 1,200 mg orally single dose 18 1.04 (0.98 to 1.11) 1.01 (0.97 to 1.05)
Indinavir 800 mg three times a day for 5 days 1,200 mg orally on day 5 18 0.96 (0.86 to 1.08) 0.90 (0.81 to 1.00)
Midazolam 15 mg orally on day 3 500 mg/day orally for 3 days 12 1.27 (0.89 to 1.81) 1.26 (1.01 to 1.56)
Nelfinavir 750 mg three times a day for 11 days 1,200 mg orally on day 9 14 0.90 (0.81 to 1.01) 0.85 (0.78 to 0.93)
Sildenafil 100 mg on days 1 and 4 500 mg/day orally for 3 days 12 1.16 (0.86 to 1.57) 0.92 (0.75 to 1.12)
Theophylline 4 mg/kg IV on days 1, 11, 25 500 mg orally on day 7, 250 mg/day on days 8 to 11 10 1.19 (1.02 to 1.40) 1.02 (0.86 to 1.22)
Theophylline 300 mg orally BID ×15 days 500 mg orally on day 6, then 250 mg/day on days 7 to 10 8 1.09 (0.92 to 1.29) 1.08 (0.89 to 1.31)
Triazolam 0.125 mg on day 2 500 mg orally on day 1, then 250 mg/day on day 2 12 1.06* 1.02*
Trimethoprim/ Sulfamethoxazole 160 mg/800 mg/day orally for 7 days 1,200 mg orally on day 7 12 0.85 (0.75 to 0.97)/ 0.90 (0.78 to 1.03) 0.87 (0.80 to 0.95/ 0.96 (0.88 to 1.03)
Zidovudine 500 mg/day orally for 21 days 600 mg/day orally for 14 days 5 1.12 (0.42 to 3.02) 0.94 (0.52 to 1.70)
Zidovudine 500 mg/day orally for 21 days 1,200 mg/day orally for 14 days 4 1.31 (0.43 to 3.97) 1.30 (0.69 to 2.43)
Table 2. Drug Interactions: Pharmacokinetic Parameters for Azithromycin in the Presence of Co-administered Drugs [see Drug Interactions ( 7.3)].

* — 90% Confidence interval not reported

Co-administered Drug Dose of Co-administered Drug Dose of Azithromycin n Ratio (with/without co-administered drug) of Azithromycin Pharmacokinetic Parameters (90% CI); No Effect = 1
Mean C max Mean AUC
Efavirenz 400 mg/day for 7 days 600 mg orally on day 7 14 1.22 (1.04 to 1.42) 0.92*
Fluconazole 200 mg orally single dose 1,200 mg orally single dose 18 0.82 (0.66 to 1.02) 1.07 (0.94 to 1.22)
Nelfinavir 750 mg three times a day for 11 days 1,200 mg orally on day 9 14 2.36 (1.77 to 3.15) 2.12 (1.80 to 2.50)

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