AZITHROMYCIN DIHYDRATE- azithromycin dihydrate tablet, film coated
TAGI Pharma, Inc.
1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE
Azithromycin is a macrolide antibacterial drug indicated for the treatment of patients with mild to moderate infections caused by susceptible strains of the designated microorganisms in the specific conditions listed below.
1.2 Mycobacterial Infections
Prophylaxis of Disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) Disease
Azithromycin tablets, taken alone or in combination with rifabutin at its approved dose, are indicated for the prevention of disseminated MAC disease in persons with advanced HIV infection. [see Dosage and Administration (2)]
Treatment of Disseminated MAC Disease
Azithromycin tablets, taken in combination with ethambutol, are indicated for the treatment of disseminated MAC infections in persons with advanced HIV infection. [see Use in Specific Populations (8.4) and Clinical Studies (14.1)]
To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of azithromycin tablets and other antibacterial drugs, azithromycin tablets should be used only to treat infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.
2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
[see Indications and Usage (1)]
Azithromycin can be taken with or without food. However, increased tolerability has been observed when tablets are taken with food.
For pediatric suspension see the prescribing information for azithromycin for oral suspension 100 mg/5 mL and 200 mg/5 mL bottles.
2.2 Mycobacterial Infections
Prevention of Disseminated MAC Infections
The recommended dose of azithromycin tablets for the prevention of disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) disease is: 1,200 mg taken once weekly. This dose of azithromycin tablets may be combined with the approved dosage regimen of rifabutin.
Treatment of Disseminated MAC Infections
Azithromycin should be taken at a daily dose of 600 mg, in combination with ethambutol at the recommended daily dose of 15 mg/kg. Other antimycobacterial drugs that have shown in vitro activity against MAC may be added to the regimen of azithromycin plus ethambutol at the discretion of the physician or health care provider.
3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS
Azithromycin Tablets USP, 600 mg (debossed “OE” on one side and “600” on the other side) are supplied as white, oval-shaped, film coated tablets containing azithromycin dihydrate equivalent to 600 mg azithromycin.
Azithromycin tablets are contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to azithromycin, erythromycin, any macrolide, or ketolide drug.
4.2 Hepatic Dysfunction
Azithromycin tablets are contraindicated in patients with a history of cholestatic jaundice/hepatic dysfunction associated with prior use of azithromycin.
5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
Serious allergic reactions, including angioedema, anaphylaxis, and dermatologic reactions including Acute Generalized Exanthematous Pustulosis (AGEP), Stevens-Johnson Syndrome, and toxic epidermal necrolysis, have been reported rarely in patients on azithromycin therapy. [see Contraindications (4.1)]
Fatalities have been reported. Cases of Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS) have also been reported. Despite initially successful symptomatic treatment of the allergic symptoms, when symptomatic therapy was discontinued, the allergic symptoms recurred soon thereafter in some patients without further azithromycin exposure. These patients required prolonged periods of observation and symptomatic treatment. The relationship of these episodes to the long tissue half-life of azithromycin and subsequent prolonged exposure to antigen is presently unknown.
If an allergic reaction occurs, the drug should be discontinued and appropriate therapy should be instituted. Physicians should be aware that allergic symptoms may reappear when symptomatic therapy is discontinued.
Abnormal liver function, hepatitis, cholestatic jaundice, hepatic necrosis, and hepatic failure have been reported, some of which have resulted in death. Discontinue azithromycin immediately if signs and symptoms of hepatitis occur.
5.3 Infantile Hypertrophic Pyloric Stenosis (IHPS)
Following the use of azithromycin in neonates (treatment up to 42 days of life), IHPS has been reported. Direct parents and caregivers to contact their physician if vomiting or irritability with feeding occurs.
5.4 QT Prolongation
Prolonged cardiac repolarization and QT interval, imparting a risk of developing cardiac arrhythmia and torsades de pointes, have been seen with treatment with macrolides, including azithromycin. Cases of torsades de pointes have been spontaneously reported during postmarketing surveillance in patients receiving azithromycin. Providers should consider the risk of QT prolongation which can be fatal when weighing the risks and benefits of azithromycin for at-risk groups including:
- patients with known prolongation of the QT interval, a history of torsades de pointes, congenital long QT syndrome, bradyarrhythmias or uncompensated heart failure
- patients on drugs known to prolong the QT interval
- patients with ongoing proarrhythmic conditions such as uncorrected hypokalemia or hypomagnesemia, clinically significant bradycardia, and in patients receiving Class IA (quinidine, procainamide) or Class III (dofetilide, amiodarone, sotalol) antiarrhythmic agents.
Elderly patients may be more susceptible to drug-associated effects on the QT interval.
5.5 Cardiovascular Death
Some observational studies have shown an approximately two-fold increased short-term potential risk of acute cardiovascular death in adults exposed to azithromycin relative to other antibacterial drugs, including amoxicillin. The five-day cardiovascular mortality observed in these studies ranged from 20 to 400 per million azithromycin treatment courses. This potential risk was noted to be greater during the first five days of azithromycin use and does not appear to be limited to those patients with preexisting cardiovascular diseases. The data in these observational studies are insufficient to establish or exclude a causal relationship between acute cardiovascular death and azithromycin use. Consider balancing this potential risk with treatment benefits when prescribing azithromycin.
5.6 Clostridium difficile -Associated Diarrhea (CDAD)
CDAD has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including azithromycin, and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon, leading to overgrowth of C. difficile.
C. difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin– producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antibacterial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibiotic use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents.
If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibiotic use not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of C. difficile , and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.
5.7 Exacerbation of Myasthenia Gravis
Exacerbations of symptoms of myasthenia gravis and new onset of myasthenic syndrome have been reported in patients receiving azithromycin therapy.
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