Azithromycin Monohydrate (Page 2 of 8)

3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS

Azithromycin Tablets, 250 mg are supplied as pink, oval shaped film-coated tablets, engraved with “LU” on one side and “L11″ on the other side containing azithromycin monohydrate USP equivalent to 250 mg of azithromycin USP.

Azithromycin Tablets, 500 mg are supplied as pink, oval shaped film-coated tablets, engraved with “LU” on one side and “L12″ on the other side containing azithromycin monohydrate USP equivalent to 500 mg of azithromycin USP.

4 CONTRAINDICATIONS

4.1 Hypersensitivity

Azithromycin is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to azithromycin, erythromycin, any macrolide or ketolide drug.

4.2 Hepatic Dysfunction

Azithromycin is contraindicated in patients with a history of cholestatic jaundice/hepatic dysfunction associated with prior use of azithromycin.

5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

5.1 Hypersensitivity

Serious allergic reactions, including angioedema, anaphylaxis, and dermatologic reactions including Acute Generalized Exanthematous Pustulosis (AGEP), Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and toxic epidermal necrolysis have been reported in patients on azithromycin therapy. [see CONTRAINDICATIONS ( 4.1)]

Fatalities have been reported. Cases of Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS) have also been reported. Despite initially successful symptomatic treatment of the allergic symptoms, when symptomatic therapy was discontinued, the allergic symptoms recurred soon thereafter in some patients without further azithromycin exposure. These patients required prolonged periods of observation and symptomatic treatment. The relationship of these episodes to the long tissue half-life of azithromycin and subsequent prolonged exposure to antigen is presently unknown.

If an allergic reaction occurs, the drug should be discontinued and appropriate therapy should be instituted. Physicians should be aware that allergic symptoms may reappear when symptomatic therapy has been discontinued.

5.2 Hepatotoxicity

Abnormal liver function, hepatitis, cholestatic jaundice, hepatic necrosis, and hepatic failure have been reported, some of which have resulted in death. Discontinue azithromycin immediately if signs and symptoms of hepatitis occur.

5.3 Infantile Hypertrophic Pyloric Stenosis (IHPS)

Following the use of azithromycin in neonates (treatment up to 42 days of life), IHPS has been reported. Direct parents and caregivers to contact their physician if vomiting or irritability with feeding occurs.

5.4 QT Prolongation

Prolonged cardiac repolarization and QT interval, imparting a risk of developing cardiac arrhythmia and torsades de pointes, have been seen with treatment with macrolides, including azithromycin. Cases of torsades de pointes have been spontaneously reported during postmarketing surveillance in patients receiving azithromycin. Providers should consider the risk of QT prolongation which can be fatal when weighing the risks and benefits of azithromycin for at-risk groups including:

  • patients with known prolongation of the QT interval, a history of torsades de pointes, congenital long QT syndrome, bradyarrhythmias or uncompensated heart failure
  • patients on drugs known to prolong the QT interval
  • patients with ongoing proarrhythmic conditions such as uncorrected hypokalemia or hypomagnesemia, clinically significant bradycardia, and in patients receiving Class IA (quinidine, procainamide) or Class III (dofetilide, amiodarone, sotalol) antiarrhythmic agents.

Elderly patients may be more susceptible to drug-associated effects on the QT interval.

5.5 Clostridium difficile -Associated Diarrhea (CDAD)

Clostridium difficile -associated diarrhea has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including azithromycin, and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon, leading to overgrowth of C. difficile.

C. difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antibacterial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibiotic use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents.

If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibiotic use not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of C. difficile , and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.

5.6 Exacerbation of Myasthenia Gravis

Exacerbation of symptoms of myasthenia gravis and new onset of myasthenic syndrome have been reported in patients receiving azithromycin therapy.

5.7 Use in Sexually Transmitted Infections

Azithromycin, at the recommended dose, should not be relied upon to treat syphilis. Antibacterial agents used to treat non-gonococcal urethritis may mask or delay the symptoms of incubating syphilis. All patients with sexually transmitted urethritis or cervicitis should have a serologic test for syphilis and appropriate testing for gonorrhea performed at the time of diagnosis. Appropriate antibacterial therapy and follow-up tests for these diseases should be initiated if infection is confirmed.

5.8 Development of Drug-Resistant Bacteria

Prescribing azithromycin in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.

6 ADVERSE REACTIONS

6.1 Clinical Trials Experience

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.

In clinical trials, most of the reported side effects were mild to moderate in severity and were reversible upon discontinuation of the drug. Potentially serious adverse reactions of angioedema and cholestatic jaundice were reported. Approximately 0.7% of the patients (adults and pediatric patients) from the 5-day multiple-dose clinical trials discontinued azithromycin therapy because of treatment-related adverse reactions. In adults given 500 mg/day for 3 days, the discontinuation rate due to treatment-related adverse reactions was 0.6%. In clinical trials in pediatric patients given 30 mg/kg, either as a single dose or over 3 days, discontinuation from the trials due to treatment-related adverse reactions was approximately 1%. Most of the adverse reactions leading to discontinuation were related to the gastrointestinal tract, e.g., nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, or abdominal pain. [see CLINICAL STUDIES ( 14.2)]

Adults
Multiple-dose regimens: Overall, the most common treatment-related adverse reactions in adult patients receiving multiple-dose regimens of azithromycin were related to the gastrointestinal system with diarrhea/loose stools (4 to 5%), nausea (3%), and abdominal pain (2 to 3%) being the most frequently reported.

No other adverse reactions occurred in patients on the multiple-dose regimens of azithromycin with a frequency greater than 1%. Adverse reactions that occurred with a frequency of 1% or less included the following:

Cardiovascular:
Palpitations, chest pain.

Gastrointestinal:
Dyspepsia, flatulence, vomiting, melena, and cholestatic jaundice.

Genitourinary:
Monilia, vaginitis, and nephritis.

Nervous System:
Dizziness, headache, vertigo, and somnolence.

General:
Fatigue.

Allergic:
Rash, pruritus, photosensitivity, and angioedema.

Single 1-gram dose regimen:
Overall, the most common adverse reactions in patients receiving a single-dose regimen of 1 gram of azithromycin were related to the gastrointestinal system and were more frequently reported than in patients receiving the multiple-dose regimen.

Adverse reactions that occurred in patients on the single 1-gram dosing regimen of azithromycin with a frequency of 1% or greater included diarrhea/loose stools (7%), nausea (5%), abdominal pain (5%), vomiting (2%), dyspepsia (1%), and vaginitis (1%).

Single 2-gram dose regimen:
Overall, the most common adverse reactions in patients receiving a single 2-gram dose of azithromycin were related to the gastrointestinal system. Adverse reactions that occurred in patients in this study with a frequency of 1% or greater included nausea (18%), diarrhea/loose stools (14%), vomiting (7%), abdominal pain (7%), vaginitis (2%), dyspepsia (1%), and dizziness (1%). The majority of these complaints were mild in nature.

Pediatric Patients
Single and Multiple-dose regimens: The types of adverse reactions in pediatric patients were comparable to those seen in adults, with different incidence rates for the dosage regimens recommended in pediatric patients.

Acute Otitis Media: For the recommended total dosage regimen of 30 mg/kg, the most frequent adverse reactions (≥1%) attributed to treatment were diarrhea, abdominal pain, vomiting, nausea, and rash. [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION ( 2) and CLINICAL STUDIES ( 14.2)]

The incidence, based on dosing regimen, is described in the table below:

Dosage Regimen

Diarrhea %

Abdominal Pain %

Vomiting %

Nausea %

Rash %

1-day

4.3%

1.4%

4.9%

1.0%

1.0%

3-day

2.6%

1.7%

2.3%

0.4%

0.6%

5-day

1.8%

1.2%

1.1%

0.5%

0.4%

Community-Acquired Pneumonia: For the recommended dosage regimen of 10 mg/kg on Day 1 followed by 5 mg/kg on Days 2 to 5, the most frequent adverse reactions attributed to treatment were diarrhea/loose stools, abdominal pain, vomiting, nausea, and rash.

The incidence is described in the table below:

Dosage Regimen

Diarrhea/Loose stools %

Abdominal Pain %

Vomiting %

Nausea %

Rash %

5-day

5.8%

1.9%

1.9%

1.9%

1.6%

Pharyngitis/Tonsillitis: For the recommended dosage regimen of 12 mg/kg on Days 1 to 5, the most frequent adverse reactions attributed to treatment were diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal pain, nausea, and headache.

The incidence is described in the table below:

Dosage Regimen

Diarrhea %

Abdominal Pain %

Vomiting %

Nausea %

Rash %

Headache %

5-day

5.4%

3.4%

5.6%

1.8%

0.7%

1.1%

With any of the treatment regimens, no other adverse reactions occurred in pediatric patients treated with azithromycin with a frequency greater than 1%. Adverse reactions that occurred with a frequency of 1% or less included the following:

Cardiovascular:
Chest pain.

Gastrointestinal:
Dyspepsia, constipation, anorexia, enteritis, flatulence, gastritis, jaundice, loose stools, and oral moniliasis.

Hematologic and Lymphatic:
Anemia and leukopenia.

Nervous System:
Headache (otitis media dosage), hyperkinesia, dizziness, agitation, nervousness, and insomnia.

General:
Fever, face edema, fatigue, fungal infection, malaise, and pain.

Allergic:
Rash and allergic reaction.

Respiratory:
Cough, pharyngitis, pleural effusion, and rhinitis.

Skin and Appendages:
Eczema, fungal dermatitis, pruritus, sweating, urticaria, and vesiculobullous rash.

Special Senses:
Conjunctivitis.

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