Balsalazide Disodium

BALSALAZIDE DISODIUM- balsalazide disodium capsule
Bryant Ranch Prepack

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1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE

Balsalazide disodium capsules are indicated for the treatment of mildly to moderately active ulcerative colitis in patients 5 years of age and older.

Limitations of Use

Safety and effectiveness of balsalazide beyond 8 weeks in children (ages 5 to 17 years) and 12 weeks in adults have not been established.

2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

2.1 Adult Dose

For treatment of active ulcerative colitis in adult patients, the usual dose is three 750 mg balsalazide disodium capsules to be taken 3 times a day (6.75 g per day) for up to 8 weeks. Some patients in the adult clinical trials required treatment for up to 12 weeks.

2.2 Pediatric Dose

For treatment of active ulcerative colitis in pediatric patients, aged 5 to 17 years, the usual dose is EITHER:

  • three 750 mg balsalazide disodium capsules 3 times a day (6.75 g per day) for up to 8 weeks;

    OR:

  • one 750 mg balsalazide disodium capsule 3 times a day (2.25 g per day) for up to 8 weeks.

Use of balsalazide in the pediatric population for more than 8 weeks has not been evaluated in clinical trials. [See Clinical Studies (14.2)]

2.3 Administration Alternatives

Balsalazide disodium capsules may also be administered by carefully opening the capsule and sprinkling the capsule contents on applesauce. The entire drug/applesauce mixture should be swallowed immediately; the contents may be chewed, if necessary, since contents of balsalazide disodium capsules are NOT coated beads/granules. Patients should be instructed not to store any drug/applesauce mixture for future use.

If the capsules are opened for sprinkling, color variation of the powder inside the capsules ranges from orange to yellow and is expected due to color variation of the active pharmaceutical ingredient.

Teeth and/or tongue staining may occur in some patients who use balsalazide disodium capsules in sprinkle form with food.

3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS

Balsalazide disodium capsules, USP are available as opaque white capsules containing 750 mg balsalazide disodium, imprinted with “APO B750” in red ink.

4 CONTRAINDICATIONS

Patients with hypersensitivity to salicylates or to any of the components of balsalazide disodium capsules or balsalazide metabolites. Hypersensitivity reactions may include, but are not limited to the following: anaphylaxis, bronchospasm, and skin reaction.

5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

5.1 Exacerbations of Ulcerative Colitis

In the adult clinical trials, 3 out of 259 patients reported exacerbation of the symptoms of ulcerative colitis. In the pediatric clinical trials, 4 out of 68 patients reported exacerbation of the symptoms of ulcerative colitis.

Observe patients closely for worsening of these symptoms while on treatment.

5.2 Pyloric Stenosis

Patients with pyloric stenosis may have prolonged gastric retention of balsalazide disodium capsules.

5.3 Renal

Renal toxicity has been observed in animals and patients given other mesalamine products. Therefore, caution should be exercised when administering balsalazide capsules to patients with known renal dysfunction or a history of renal disease. [See Nonclinical Toxicology (13.2)]

6 ADVERSE REACTIONS

6.1 Clinical Studies Experience

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.

Adult Ulcerative ColitisDuring clinical development, 259 adult patients with active ulcerative colitis were exposed to 6.75 g/day balsalazide in 4 controlled trials.

In the 4 controlled clinical trials patients receiving a balsalazide dose of 6.75 g/day most frequently reported the following adverse reactions: headache (8%), abdominal pain (6%), diarrhea (5%), nausea (5%), vomiting (4%), respiratory infection (4%), and arthralgia (4%). Withdrawal from therapy due to adverse reactions was comparable among patients on balsalazide and placebo.

Adverse reactions reported by 1% or more of patients who participated in the 4 well-controlled, Phase 3 trials are presented by treatment group (Table 1).

The number of placebo patients (35), however, is too small for valid comparisons. Some adverse reactions, such as abdominal pain, fatigue, and nausea were reported more frequently in women than in men. Abdominal pain, rectal bleeding, and anemia can be part of the clinical presentation of ulcerative colitis.

Table 1: Adverse Reactions Occurring in ≥ 1 % of Adult Balsalazide Patients in Controlled Trials*

Adverse Reaction Balsalazide Capsules 6.75 g/day [N=259] Placebo[N=35]
Abdominal pain Diarrhea Arthralgia Rhinitis Insomnia Fatigue Flatulence Fever Dyspepsia Pharyngitis Coughing Anorexia Urinary tract infection Myalgia Flu-like disorder Dry mouth Cramps Constipation 16 (6%) 14 (5%) 9 (4%) 6 (2%) 6 (2%) 6 (2%) 5 (2%) 5 (2%) 5 (2%) 4 (2%) 4 (2%) 4 (2%) 3 (1%) 3 (1%) 3 (1%)3 (1%) 3 (1%)3 (1%) 1 (3%) 1 (3%) 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%

*Adverse reactions occurring in at least 1 % of balsalazide Patients which were less frequent than placebo for the same adverse reaction were not included in the table.

Pediatric Ulcerative ColitisIn a clinical trial in 68 pediatric patients aged 5 to 17 years with mildly to moderately active ulcerative colitis who received 6.75 g/day or 2.25 g/day balsalazide disodium for 8 weeks, the most frequently reported adverse reactions were headache (15%), abdominal pain upper (13%), abdominal pain (12%), vomiting (10%), diarrhea (9%), colitis ulcerative (6%), nasopharyngitis (6%), and pyrexia (6%). [see Table 2]

One patient who received balsalazide disodium 6.75 g/day and 3 patients who received balsalazide disodium 2.25 g/day discontinued treatment because of adverse reactions. In addition, 2 patients in each dose group discontinued because of a lack of efficacy.

Adverse reactions reported by 3% or more of pediatric patients within either treatment group in the Phase 3 trial are presented in Table 2.

Table 2: Treatment-Emergent Adverse Reactions Reported by ≥3% of Patients in Either Treatment Group in a Controlled Study of 68 Pediatric Patients

balsalazide disodium
Adverse Reaction 6.75 g/day [N=33] 2.25 g/day [N=35] Total [N=68]
Headache 5 (15%) 5 (14%) 10 (15%)
Abdominal pain upper 3 (9%) 6 (17%) 9 (13%)
Abdominal pain 4 (12%) 4 (11%) 8 (12%)
Vomiting 1 (3%) 6 (17%) 7 (10%)
Diarrhea 2 (6%) 4 (11%) 6 (9%)
Colitis ulcerative 2 (6%) 2 (6%) 4 (6%)
Nasopharyngitis 3 (9%) 1 (3%) 4 (6%)
Pyrexia 0 (0%) 4 (11%) 4 (6%)
Hematochezia 0 (0%) 3 (9%) 3 (4%)
Nausea 0 (0%) 3 (9%) 3 (4%)
Influenza 1 (3%) 2 (6%) 3 (4%)
Fatigue 2 (6%) 1 (3%) 3 (4%)
Stomatitis 0 (0%) 2 (6%) 2 (3%)
Cough 0 (0%) 2 (6%) 2 (3%)
Pharyngolaryngeal pain 2 (6%) 0 (0%) 2 (3%)
Dysmenorrhea 2 (6%) 0 (0%) 2 (3%)
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