As with all therapeutic proteins, there is potential for immunogenicity. The detection of antibody formation is highly dependent on the sensitivity and specificity of the assay. Additionally, the observed incidence of antibody (including neutralizing antibody) positivity in an assay may be influenced by several factors including assay methodology, sample handling, timing of sample collection, concomitant medications, and underlying disease. For these reasons, comparison of the incidence of antibodies to avelumab in the studies described below with the incidence of antibodies in other studies or to other products may be misleading.
Of the 344 patients treated with BAVENCIO 10 mg/kg as an intravenous infusion every 2 weeks plus BSC, 325 were evaluable for treatment-emergent anti-drug antibodies (ADA) and 62 (19.1%) tested positive in the JAVELIN Bladder 100 trial.
Of the 480 patients treated with BAVENCIO 10 mg/kg as an intravenous infusion every 2 weeks in combination with axitinib 5 mg twice daily, 453 were evaluable for treatment-emergent ADA and 66 (15%) tested positive in the JAVELIN Renal 100 and JAVELIN Renal 101 trials.
Patients who tested positive for treatment-emergent ADA had decreased systemic BAVENCIO exposure [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. In exploratory analyses, the effect of ADA on the efficacy or safety could not be determined due to insufficient numbers of patients in the ADA-positive subgroup and confounding variables.
Based on its mechanism of action, BAVENCIO can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. There are no available data on the use of BAVENCIO in pregnant women [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.1)]. Animal studies have demonstrated that inhibition of the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway can lead to increased risk of immune-mediated rejection of the developing fetus resulting in fetal death [see Data]. Human IgG1 immunoglobulins (IgG1) are known to cross the placenta. Therefore, BAVENCIO has the potential to be transmitted from the mother to the developing fetus. If this drug is used during pregnancy, or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking this drug, advise the patient of the potential risk to a fetus.
In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2% to 4% and 15% to 20%, respectively.
Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted with BAVENCIO to evaluate its effect on reproduction and fetal development. A central function of the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway is to preserve pregnancy by maintaining maternal immune tolerance to the fetus. In murine models of pregnancy, blockade of PD-L1 signaling has been shown to disrupt tolerance to the fetus and to result in an increase in fetal loss; therefore, potential risks of administering BAVENCIO during pregnancy include increased rates of abortion or stillbirth. As reported in the literature, there were no malformations related to the blockade of PD-1/PD-L1 signaling in the offspring of these animals; however, immune-mediated disorders occurred in PD-1 and PD-L1 knockout mice. Based on its mechanism of action, fetal exposure to BAVENCIO may increase the risk of developing immune-related disorders or altering the normal immune response.
There is no information regarding the presence of avelumab in human milk, the effects on the breastfed infant, or the effects on milk production. Since many drugs including antibodies are excreted in human milk, advise a lactating woman not to breastfeed during treatment and for at least one month after the last dose of BAVENCIO due to the potential for serious adverse reactions in breastfed infants.
Based on its mechanism of action, BAVENCIO can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1)]. Advise females of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during treatment with BAVENCIO and for at least 1 month after the last dose of BAVENCIO.
The safety and effectiveness of BAVENCIO have been established in pediatric patients aged 12 years and older for metastatic MCC. Use of BAVENCIO in this age group is supported by evidence from adequate and well-controlled studies of BAVENCIO in adults with additional population pharmacokinetic data demonstrating that age and body weight had no clinically meaningful effect on the steady state exposure of avelumab, that drug exposure is generally similar between adults and pediatric patients age 12 years and older for monoclonal antibodies, and that the course of MCC is sufficiently similar in adult and pediatric patients to allow extrapolation of data in adults to pediatric patients. The recommended dose in pediatric patients 12 years of age or greater is the same as that in adults [see Dosage and Administration (2.2), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3), and Clinical Studies (14)].
Safety and effectiveness of BAVENCIO have not been established in pediatric patients less than 12 years of age.
Metastatic Merkel Cell Carcinoma
Clinical studies of BAVENCIO in MCC did not include sufficient numbers of patients aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger patients.
Locally Advanced or Metastatic Urothelial Carcinoma
Of the 344 patients randomized to BAVENCIO 10 mg/kg plus BSC in the JAVELIN Bladder 100 trial, 63% were 65 years or older and 24% were 75 years or older. No overall differences in safety or efficacy were reported between elderly patients and younger patients.
Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma
Of the 434 patients randomized to BAVENCIO 10 mg/kg administered in combination with axitinib 5 mg twice daily in the JAVELIN Renal 101 trial, 38% were 65 years or older and 8% were 75 years or older. No overall difference in safety or efficacy were reported between elderly patients and younger patients.
Avelumab is a programmed death ligand1 (PD-L1) blocking antibody. Avelumab- is a human IgG1 lambda monoclonal antibody produced in Chinese hamster ovary cells and has a molecular weight of approximately 147 kDa.
BAVENCIO (avelumab) Injection for intravenous use is a sterile, preservative-free, non-pyrogenic, clear, colorless to slightly yellow solution. Each single-dose vial contains 200 mg avelumab in 10 mL (20 mg/mL). Each mL contains 20 mg avelumab, D-mannitol (51 mg), glacial acetic acid (0.6 mg), polysorbate 20 (0.5 mg), sodium hydroxide (0.3 mg), and Water for Injection. The pH range of the solution is 5.0 – 5.6.
PD-L1 may be expressed on tumor cells and tumor-infiltrating immune cells and can contribute to the inhibition of the anti-tumor immune response in the tumor microenvironment. Binding of PD-L1 to the PD-1 and B7.1 receptors found on T cells and antigen presenting cells suppresses cytotoxic T-cell activity, T-cell proliferation, and cytokine production. Avelumab binds PD-L1 and blocks the interaction between PD-L1 and its receptors PD-1 and B7.1. This interaction releases the inhibitory effects of PD-L1 on the immune response resulting in the restoration of immune responses, including anti-tumor immune responses. Avelumab has also been shown to induce antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) in vitro. In syngeneic mouse tumor models, blocking PD-L1 activity resulted in decreased tumor growth.
Based on exposure efficacy and exposure safety relationships, there are no expected clinically meaningful differences in the safety or efficacy of BAVENCIO administered every 2 weeks at 800 mg or 10 mg/kg in patients with metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma, in patients with urothelial carcinoma and in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma.
Avelumab pharmacokinetics (PK) was assessed using a population PK approach for both single-agent BAVENCIO and BAVENCIO in combination with axitinib. There are no expected clinically meaningful differences in exposure of avelumab administered every 2 weeks at 800 mg or 10 mg/kg in both settings.
BAVENCIO as a single agent
The pharmacokinetics of avelumab as a single agent was studied in 1629 patients who received doses ranging from 1 to 20 mg/kg every 2 weeks. The data showed that the exposure of avelumab increased dose-proportionally in the dose range of 10 to 20 mg/kg every 2 weeks. Steady-state concentrations of avelumab were reached after approximately 4 to 6 weeks (2 to 3 cycles) of repeated dosing, and the systemic accumulation was approximately 1.25-fold. The geometric mean volume of distribution at steady state for a subject receiving 10 mg/kg was 4.72 L. The primary elimination mechanism of avelumab is proteolytic degradation. Based on population pharmacokinetic analyses in patients with solid tumors, the total systemic clearance was 0.59 L/day and the terminal half-life was 6.1 days in patients receiving 10 mg/kg. In a post hoc analysis, avelumab clearance was found to decrease over time in patients with MCC, with a mean maximal reduction (% coefficient of variation [CV%]) from baseline value of approximately 32.1% (36.2%), which is not considered clinically important. There was no evidence to suggest a change of avelumab clearance over time in patients with UC.
BAVENCIO with axitinib
When BAVENCIO 10 mg/kg was administered in combination with axitinib 5 mg, the respective exposures of avelumab and axitinib were comparable to the single agents. There was no evidence to suggest a clinically relevant change of avelumab clearance over time in patients with advanced RCC.
Body weight was positively correlated with total systemic clearance in population pharmacokinetic analyses. No clinically meaningful differences in pharmacokinetics were observed in the clearance of avelumab based on age; sex; race; PD-L1 status; tumor burden; mild [calculated creatinine clearance (CLcr) 60 to 89 mL/min, n=623 as estimated by the Cockcroft-Gault formula], moderate [CLcr 30 to 59 mL/min, n=320], or severe [CLcr 15 to 29 mL/min, n=4] renal impairment; and mild [bilirubin less than or equal to ULN and AST greater than ULN or bilirubin between 1 and 1.5 times ULN, n=217] or moderate [bilirubin between 1.5 and 3 times ULN, n=4] hepatic impairment. There are limited data from patients with severe hepatic impairment [bilirubin greater than 3 times ULN, n=1], and the effect of severe hepatic impairment on the pharmacokinetics of avelumab is unknown. In patients with advanced UC or advanced RCC, BAVENCIO clearance in patients who tested positive for treatment-emergent ADA was approximately 15% higher as compared to clearance in patients who tested negative for treatment-emergent ADA.
All MedLibrary.org resources are included in as near-original form as possible, meaning that the information from the original provider has been rendered here with only typographical or stylistic modifications and not with any substantive alterations of content, meaning or intent.