No studies have been conducted to assess the potential of avelumab for genotoxicity or carcinogenicity.
Fertility studies have not been conducted with avelumab; however, an assessment of male and female reproductive organs was included in 3-month repeat-dose toxicity study in Cynomolgus monkeys. Weekly administration of avelumab did not result in any notable effects in the male and female reproductive organs.
In animal models, inhibition of PD-L1/PD-1 signaling increased the severity of some infections and enhanced inflammatory responses. M. tuberculosis-infected PD-1 knockout mice exhibit markedly decreased survival compared with wild-type controls, which correlated with increased bacterial proliferation and inflammatory responses in these animals. PD-L1 and PD-1 knockout mice and mice receiving PD-L1 blocking antibody have also shown decreased survival following infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus.
The efficacy and safety of BAVENCIO was demonstrated in the JAVELIN Merkel 200 trial (NCT02155647), an open-label, single-arm, multi-center study conducted in patients with histologically confirmed metastatic MCC whose disease had progressed on or after chemotherapy administered for distant metastatic disease. The trial excluded patients with autoimmune disease; medical conditions requiring systemic immunosuppression; prior organ or allogeneic stem cell transplantation; prior treatment with anti-PD-1, anti-PD-L1, or anti-CTLA-4 antibodies; CNS metastases; infection with HIV, hepatitis B, or hepatitis C; or ECOG performance score ≥ 2.
Patients received BAVENCIO 10 mg/kg as an intravenous infusion over 60 minutes every 2 weeks until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Patients with radiological disease progression not associated with significant clinical deterioration, defined as no new or worsening symptoms, no change in performance status for greater than 2 weeks, and no need for salvage therapy, could continue treatment. Tumor response assessments were performed every 6 weeks. The major efficacy outcome measures were confirmed overall response rate (ORR) according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) v1.1 as assessed by a blinded independent central review committee (IRC) and IRC-assessed duration of response. The efficacy analysis was conducted when the last patient enrolled had completed 12 months of follow-up.
A total of 88 patients were enrolled. Baseline patient characteristics were a median age of 73 years (range: 33 to 88), 74% of patients were male, 92% were White, and the ECOG performance score was 0 (56%) or 1 (44%). Seventy-five percent of patients were 65 years or older, 35% were 75 or older, and 3% were 85 or older. Sixty-five percent of patients were reported to have had one prior anti-cancer therapy for metastatic MCC and 35% had two or more prior therapies. Fifty-three percent of patients had visceral metastases. All patients had tumor samples evaluated for PD-L1 expression; of these, 66% were PD-L1-positive (≥ 1% of tumor cells), 18% were PD-L1 negative, and 16% had non-evaluable results by an investigational immunohistochemistry assay. Archival tumor samples were evaluated for Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV) using an investigational assay; of the 77 patients with evaluable results, 52% had evidence of MCV.
Efficacy results are presented in Table 9. Responses were observed in patients regardless of tumor PD-L1 expression or presence of MCV.
|CI: Confidence interval.|
|Overall Response Rate (ORR)|
|Overall response rate, (95% CI)||33.0% (23.3%, 43.8%)|
|Complete response (CR) rate, (95% CI)||11.4% (6.6%, 19.9%)|
|Partial response (PR) rate, (95% CI)||21.6% (13.5%, 31.7%)|
|Duration of Response (DOR)||N=29|
|Range in months||2.8 to 23.3+|
|Patients with DOR ≥ 6 months, n (%)||25 (86%)|
|Patients with DOR ≥ 12 months, n (%)||13 (45%)|
First-Line Maintenance Treatment of Urothelial Carcinoma
The efficacy and safety of BAVENCIO was demonstrated in the JAVELIN Bladder 100 trial (NCT02603432), a randomized, multi-center, open-label study conducted in 700 patients with unresectable, locally advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma that did not progress with first-line platinum-containing chemotherapy. Patients with autoimmune disease or a medical condition that required immunosuppression were excluded.
Randomization was stratified by best response to chemotherapy (CR/PR vs. stable disease [SD]) and site of metastasis (visceral vs. non-visceral) at the time of initiating first-line chemotherapy. Patients were randomized (1:1) to receive either BAVENCIO 10 mg/kg intravenous infusion every 2 weeks plus best supportive care (BSC) or BSC alone. Treatment was initiated within 4-10 weeks after the last dose of chemotherapy.
Treatment with BAVENCIO continued until RECIST v1.1-defined progression of disease by Blinded Independent Central Review (BICR) assessment or unacceptable toxicity. Administration of BAVENCIO was permitted beyond RECIST-defined disease progression if the patient was clinically stable and was considered to be deriving clinical benefit by the investigator. Assessment of tumor status was performed at baseline, 8 weeks after randomization, then every 8 weeks up to 12 months after randomization, and every 12 weeks thereafter until documented confirmed disease progression based on BICR assessment per RECIST v1.1.
Baseline characteristics were well-balanced between arms. Overall, the median age was 69 years (range: 32 to 90), with 66% of patients ≥ 65 years of age and 24% of patients ≥ 75 years of age. Most patients were male (77%). The majority of patients were White (67%) and 22% were Asian. Baseline ECOG PS was 0 (61%) or 1 (39%).
Fifty-six percent (56%) of patients received prior gemcitabine plus cisplatin, 38% of patients received prior gemcitabine plus carboplatin, and 6% of patients received prior gemcitabine plus cisplatin and gemcitabine plus carboplatin. Best response to first-line chemotherapy was CR or PR (72%) or SD (28%). Sites of metastasis prior to chemotherapy were visceral (55%) or non-visceral (45%). Fifty-one (51%) of patients had PD-L1-positive-tumors, 39% of patients had PD-L1-negative tumors, and 10% of patients had unknown PD-L1 tumor status. Six percent (6%) of patients received another PD-1/PD-L1 checkpoint inhibitor after discontinuation of treatment in the BAVENCIO plus BSC arm and 44% of patients in the BSC arm.
The major efficacy outcome measure was overall survival (OS) in all randomized patients and patients with PD-L1-positive tumors. The trial demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in OS for patients randomized to BAVENCIO plus BSC as compared with BSC alone (Table 10 and Figure 1). Consistent results were observed across the pre-specified subgroup of CR/PR versus SD to first-line chemotherapy.
|Efficacy Endpoints||BAVENCIO plus BSC(N=350)||BSC(N=350)|
|BSC: Best supportive care; CI: Confidence interval.|
|Overall Survival (OS)|
|Events (%)||145 (41.4)||179 (51.1)|
|Median in months (95% CI)||21.4 (18.9, 26.1)||14.3 (12.9, 17.9)|
|Hazard ratio (95% CI)||0.69 (0.56, 0.86)|
|2-sided p-value *||0.001|
Figure 1: K-M Estimates for OS from the JAVELIN Bladder 100 Trial
In the prespecified endpoint of OS among patients with PD-L1-positive tumors (n=358, 51%), the hazard ratio was 0.56 (95% CI: 0.40, 0.79; 2-sided p-value <0.001) for patients randomized to BAVENCIO plus BSC versus BSC alone. In an exploratory analysis of patients with PD-L1-negative tumors (n=271, 39%), the OS hazard ratio was 0.85 (95% CI: 0.62, 1.18).
Previously-Treated Urothelial Carcinoma
The efficacy and safety of BAVENCIO was demonstrated in the UC cohorts of the JAVELIN Solid Tumor trial, an open-label, single-arm, multi-center study that included 242 patients with locally advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma (UC) with disease progression on or after platinum-containing chemotherapy or who had disease progression within 12 months of treatment with a platinum-containing neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy regimen. Patients with active or history of central nervous system metastasis; other malignancies within the last 5 years; organ transplant; conditions requiring therapeutic immune suppression; or active infection with HIV, hepatitis B, or hepatitis C were excluded. Patients with autoimmune disease, other than type I diabetes, vitiligo, psoriasis, or thyroid disease that did not require immunosuppressive treatment, were excluded. Patients were included regardless of their PD-L1 status.
Patients received BAVENCIO at a dose of 10 mg/kg intravenously every 2 weeks until radiographic or clinical progression or unacceptable toxicity. Tumor response assessments were performed every 6 weeks. Efficacy outcome measures included confirmed overall response rate (ORR), as assessed by an Independent Endpoint Review Committee (IERC) using Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) v1.1, and duration of response (DOR). Efficacy was evaluated in patients who were followed for a minimum of both 13 weeks and 6 months at the time of data cut-off.
Baseline demographic and disease characteristics for the 226 patients with a minimum of 13 weeks of follow-up were median age 68 years (range: 30 to 89), 72% male, 80% White, and 34% and 66% of patients had an ECOG performance status 0 and 1, respectively. Forty-four percent of patients had non-bladder urothelial carcinoma including 23% of patients with upper tract disease, and 83% of patients had visceral metastases (baseline target and/or non-target lesions present outside of the lymph nodes). Nine (4%) patients had disease progression following prior platinum-containing neoadjuvant or adjuvant therapy only. Forty-seven percent of patients only received prior cisplatin-based regimens, 32% received only prior carboplatin-based regimens, and 20% received both cisplatin and carboplatin-based regimens. At baseline, 17% of patients had a hemoglobin < 10 g/dL and 34% of patients had liver metastases.
Efficacy results are presented in Table 11. The median time to response was 2.0 months (range: 1.3 to 11.0) among patients followed for either ≥ 13 weeks or ≥ 6 months. Using a clinical trial assay to assess PD-L1 staining, with 16% of patients not evaluable, there were no clear differences in response rates based on PD-L1 tumor expression. Among the total 30 responding patients followed for ≥ 13 weeks, 22 patients (73%) had an ongoing response of 6 months or longer and 4 patients (13%) had ongoing responses of 12 months or longer. Among the total 26 responding patients followed for ≥ 6 months, 22 patients (85%) had ongoing responses of 6 months or longer and 4 patients (15%) had ongoing responses of 12 months or longer.
|Efficacy Endpoints||≥ 13 Weeks Follow-Up(N=226)||≥ 6 Months Follow-Up(N=161)|
|CI: Confidence interval; NE: Not estimable; + denotes a censored value.|
|Confirmed Overall Response Rate (ORR)|
|Overall Response Rate n (%)||30 (13.3%)||26 (16.1%)|
|(95% CI)||(9.1, 18.4)||(10.8, 22.8)|
|Complete Response (CR) n (%)||9 (4.0%)||9 (5.6%)|
|Partial Response (PR) n (%)||21 (9.3%)||17 (10.6%)|
|Duration of Response (DOR)|
|Median, months (range)||NE (1.4+ to 17.4+)||NE (1.4+ to 17.4+)|
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