BAYCADRON- dexamethasone elixir
Wockhardt USA, LLC
Each 5 mL (teaspoonful) contains:
Dexamethasone, USP……….……….…………………………. 0.5 mg
Benzoic Acid, USP……………………………………………….. 0.1%
(as preservative) Alcohol……………………………………………………………. 5.1%
Inactive Ingredients: Artificial Raspberry Flavor; Citric Acid, USP; FD&C Red No. 40; Liquid Sugar; Propylene Glycol, USP and Purified Water, USP. It may also contain Sodium Citrate, USP.
Glucocorticoids are adrenocortical steroids, both naturally occurring and synthetic, which are readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract.
Dexamethasone, a synthetic adrenocortical steroid, is a white to practically white, odorless, crystalline powder. It is stable in air. It is practically insoluble in water. The molecular weight is 392.47. It is designated chemically as 9-fluoro-11β,17,21-trihydroxy-16α-methylpregna-1,4-diene-3,20-dione. The molecular formula is C22 H29 FO5 and the structural formula is:Chemical Structure
Naturally occurring glucocorticoids, (hydrocortisone and cortisone), which also have salt-retaining properties, are used as replacement therapy in adrenocortical deficiency states. Their synthetic analogs, including dexamethasone, are primarily used for their potent anti-inflammatory effects in disorders of many organ systems.
Glucocorticoids cause profound and varied metabolic effects. In addition, they modify the body’s immune responses to diverse stimuli.
At equipotent anti-inflammatory doses, dexamethasone almost completely lacks the sodium-retaining property of hydrocortisone and closely related derivatives of hydrocortisone.
Baycadron Indications and Usage
Primary or secondary adrenocortical insufficiency (hydrocortisone or cortisone is the first choice; synthetic analogs may be used in conjunction with mineralocorticoids where applicable; in infancy mineralocorticoid supplementation is of particular importance).
- Congenital adrenal hyperplasia
- Nonsuppurative thyroiditis
- Hypercalcemia associated with cancer
As adjunctive therapy for short-term administration (to tide the patient over an acute episode or exacerbation) in:
- Psoriatic arthritis
- Rheumatoid arthritis, including juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (selected cases may require low-dose maintenance therapy)
- Ankylosing spondylitis
- Acute and subacute bursitis
- Acute nonspecific tenosynovitis
- Acute gouty arthritis
- Post-traumatic osteoarthritis
- Synovitis of osteoarthritis
During an exacerbation or as maintenance therapy in selected cases of:
- Systemic lupus erythematosus
- Acute rheumatic carditis
- Bullous dermatitis herpetiformis
- Severe erythema multiforme (Stevens-Johnson syndrome)
- Exfoliative dermatitis
- Mycosis fungoides
- Severe psoriasis
- Severe seborrheic dermatitis
Control of severe or incapacitating allergic conditions intractable to adequate trials of conventional treatment:
- Seasonal or perennial allergic rhinitis
- Bronchial asthma
- Contact dermatitis
- Atopic dermatitis
- Serum sickness
- Drug hypersensitivity reactions
Severe acute and chronic allergic and inflammatory processes involving the eye and its adnexa, such as:
- Allergic conjunctivitis
- Allergic corneal marginal ulcers
- Herpes zoster ophthalmicus
- Iritis and iridocyclitis
- Anterior segment inflammation
- Diffuse posterior uveitis and choroiditis
- Optic neuritis
- Sympathetic ophthalmia
- Symptomatic sarcoidosis
- Loeffler’s syndrome not manageable by other means
- Fulminating or disseminated pulmonary tuberculosis when used concurrently with appropriate antituberculous chemotherapy
- Aspiration pneumonitis
- Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura in adults
- Secondary thrombocytopenia in adults
- Acquired (autoimmune) hemolytic anemia
- Erythroblastopenia (RBC anemia)
- Congenital (erythroid) hypoplastic anemia
For palliative management of:
- Leukemia and lymphomas in adults
- Acute leukemia of childhood
To induce a diuresis or remission of proteinuria in the nephrotic syndrome, without uremia, of the idiopathic type or that due to lupus erythematosus
To tide the patient over a critical period of the disease in:
- Ulcerative colitis
- Regional enteritis
- Tuberculous meningitis with subarachnoid block or impending block when used concurrently with appropriate antituberculous chemotherapy
- Trichinosis with neurologic or myocardial involvement
- Systemic fungal infections
- Hypersensitivity to this product
In patients on corticosteroid therapy subjected to unusual stress, increased dosage of rapidly acting corticosteroids before, during, and after the stressful situation is indicated.
Drug-induced secondary adrenocortical insufficiency may result from too rapid withdrawal of corticosteroids and may be minimized by gradual reduction of dosage. This type of relative insufficiency may persist for months after discontinuation of therapy; therefore, in any situation of stress occurring during that period, hormone therapy should be reinstituted. If the patient is receiving steroids already, dosage may have to be increased. Since mineralocorticoid secretion may be impaired, salt and/or a mineralocorticoid should be administered concurrently.
Corticosteroids may mask some signs of infection, and new infections may appear during their use. There may be decreased resistance and inability to localize infection when corticosteroids are used. Moreover, corticosteroids may affect the nitroblue-tetrazolium test for bacterial infection and produce false-negative results.
In cerebral malaria, a double-blind trial has shown that the use of corticosteroids is associated with prolongation of coma and a higher incidence of pneumonia and gastrointestinal bleeding.
Corticosteroids may activate latent amebiasis. Therefore, it is recommended that latent or active amebiasis be ruled out before initiating corticosteroid therapy in any patient who has spent time in the tropics or any patient with unexplained diarrhea.
Prolonged use of corticosteroids may produce posterior subcapsular cataracts, glaucoma with possible damage to the optic nerves, and may enhance the establishment of secondary ocular infections due to fungi or viruses.
Since adequate human reproduction studies have not been done with corticosteroids, use of these drugs in pregnancy or in women of childbearing potential requires that the anticipated benefits be weighed against the possible hazards to the mother and embryo or fetus. Infants born of mothers who have received substantial doses of corticosteroids during pregnancy should be carefully observed for signs of hypoadrenalism.
Corticosteroids appear in breast milk and could suppress growth, interfere with endogenous corticosteroid production, or cause other unwanted effects. Mothers taking pharmacologic doses of corticosteroids should be advised not to nurse.
Average and large doses of hydrocortisone or cortisone can cause elevation of blood pressure, salt and water retention, and increased excretion of potassium. These effects are less likely to occur with the synthetic derivatives except when used in large doses. Dietary salt restriction and potassium supplementation may be necessary. All corticosteroids increase calcium excretion.
Administration of live virus vaccines, including smallpox, is contraindicated in individuals receiving immunosuppressive doses of corticosteroids. If inactivated viral or bacterial vaccines are administered to individuals receiving immunosuppressive doses of corticosteroids, the expected serum antibody response may not be obtained. However, immunization procedures may be undertaken in patients who are receiving corticosteroids as replacement therapy, e.g., for Addison’s disease.
Persons who are on drugs which suppress the immune system are more susceptible to infections than healthy individuals. Chickenpox and measles, for example, can have more serious or even fatal course in non-immune children or adults on corticosteroids. In such children or adults who have not had these diseases, particular care should be taken to avoid exposure. How the dose, route and duration of corticosteroid administration affects the risk of developing a disseminated infection is not known. The contribution of the underlying disease and/or prior corticosteroid treatment to the risk is also not known. If exposed to chickenpox, prophylaxis with varicella zoster immune globulin (VZIG) may be indicated. If exposed to measles, prophylaxis with pooled intramuscular immunoglobulin (IG) may be indicated. (See the respective package inserts for complete VZIG and IG prescribing information.) If chickenpox develops, treatment with antiviral agents may be considered.
The use of Baycadron™ Elixir in active tuberculosis should be restricted to those cases of fulminating or disseminated tuberculosis in which the corticosteroid is used for the management of the disease in conjunction with an appropriate antituberculous regimen.
If corticosteroids are indicated in patients with latent tuberculosis or tuberculin reactivity, close observation is necessary as reactivation of the disease may occur. During prolonged corticosteroid therapy, these patients should receive chemoprophylaxis.
Literature reports suggest an apparent association between use of corticosteroids and left ventricular free wall rupture after a recent myocardial infarction; therefore, therapy with corticosteroids should be used with great caution in these patients.
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