BENAZEPRIL HYDROCHLORIDE- benazepril hydrochloride tablet, coated
WARNING: FETAL TOXICITY
When pregnancy is detected, discontinue benazepril hydrochloride tablets as soon as possible. ( 5.1)
Drugs that act directly on the renin-angiotensin system can cause injury and death to the developing fetus. [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.1)]
Benazepril hydrochloride tablets are indicated for the treatment of hypertension, to lower blood pressure. Lowering blood pressure reduces the risk of fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events, primarily strokes and myocardial infarctions. These benefits have been seen in controlled trials of antihypertensive drugs from a wide variety of pharmacologic classes including the class to which this drug principally belongs.
Control of high blood pressure should be part of comprehensive cardiovascular risk management, including, as appropriate, lipid control, diabetes management, antithrombotic therapy, smoking cessation, exercise, and limited sodium intake. Many patients will require more than one drug to achieve blood pressure goals. For specific advice on goals and management, see published guidelines, such as those of the National High Blood Pressure Education Program’s Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC).
Numerous antihypertensive drugs, from a variety of pharmacologic classes and with different mechanisms of action, have been shown in randomized controlled trials to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and it can be concluded that it is blood pressure reduction, and not some other pharmacologic property of the drugs, that is largely responsible for those benefits. The largest and most consistent cardiovascular outcome benefit has been a reduction in the risk of stroke, but reductions in myocardial infarction and cardiovascular mortality also have been seen regularly.
Elevated systolic or diastolic pressure causes increased cardiovascular risk, and the absolute risk increase per mmHg is greater at higher blood pressures, so that even modest reductions of severe hypertension can provide substantial benefit. Relative risk reduction from blood pressure reduction is similar across populations with varying absolute risk, so the absolute benefit is greater in patients who are at higher risk independent of their hypertension (for example, patients with diabetes or hyperlipidemia), and such patients would be expected to benefit from more aggressive treatment to a lower blood pressure goal.
Some antihypertensive drugs have smaller blood pressure effects (as monotherapy) in black patients, and many antihypertensive drugs have additional approved indications and effects (e.g., on angina, heart failure, or diabetic kidney disease). These considerations may guide selection of therapy.
It may be used alone or in combination with thiazide diuretics.
The recommended initial dose for patients not receiving a diuretic is 10 mg once a day. The usual maintenance dosage range is 20 mg to 40 mg per day administered as a single dose or in two equally divided doses. A dose of 80 mg gives an increased response, but experience with this dose is limited. The divided regimen was more effective in controlling trough (pre-dosing) blood pressure than the same dose given as a once-daily regimen.
Use with diuretics in adults
The recommended starting dose of benazepril hydrochloride tablets in a patient on a diuretic is 5 mg once daily. If blood pressure is not controlled with benazepril hydrochloride alone, a low dose of diuretic may be added.
PEDIATRIC PATIENTS 6 YEARS OF AGE AND OLDER
The recommended starting dose for pediatric patients is 0.2 mg/kg once per day. Titrate as needed to 0.6 mg/kg once per day. Doses above 0.6 mg/kg (or in excess of 40 mg daily) have not been studied in pediatric patients.
Benazepril hydrochloride tablets are not recommended in pediatric patients less than 6 years of age or in pediatric patients with GFR less than 30 mL/min/1.73 m 2 [see Use in Specific Populations ( 8.4)].
For adults with a GFR <30 mL/min/1.73 m 2 (serum creatinine >3 mg/dL), the recommended initial dose is 5 mg benazepril hydrochloride tablets once daily. Dosage may be titrated upward until blood pressure is controlled or to a maximum total daily dose of 40 mg. Benazepril hydrochloride tablets can also worsen renal function [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.3)].
Add 75 mL of Ora-Plus®* oral suspending vehicle to an amber polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottle containing fifteen benazepril hydrochloride 20 mg tablets, and shake for at least two minutes. Allow the suspension to stand for a minimum of 1 hour. After the standing time, shake the suspension for a minimum of one additional minute. Add 75 mL of Ora-Sweet®* oral syrup vehicle to the bottle and shake the suspension to disperse the ingredients. The suspension should be refrigerated at 2-8°C (36-46°F) and can be stored for up to 30 days in the PET bottle with a child-resistant screw-cap closure. Shake the suspension before each use.
*Ora-Plus® and Ora-Sweet® are registered trademarks of Paddock Laboratories, Inc. Ora Plus® contains carrageenan, citric acid, methylparaben, microcrystalline cellulose, carboxymethylcellulose sodium, potassium sorbate, simethicone, sodium phosphate monobasic, xanthan gum, and water. Ora-Sweet® contains citric acid, berry citrus flavorant, glycerin, methylparaben, potassium sorbate, sodium phosphate monobasic, sorbitol, sucrose, and water.
Tablets: 5 mg, 10 mg, 20 mg, and 40 mg
- Each 5 mg tablet is white with “S” on one side and “341” on the other
- Each 10 mg tablet is red with “S” on one side and “342” on the other
- Each 20 mg tablet is grey with “S” on one side and “343” on the other
- Each 40 mg tablet is blue with “S” on one side and “344” on the other
Benazepril hydrochloride tablets are contraindicated in patients:
- who are hypersensitive to benazapril or to any other ACE inhibitor
- with a history of angioedema with or without previous ACE inhibitor treatment
Do not co-administer aliskiren with benazepril hydrochloride tablets in patients with diabetes [see Drug Interactions ( 7.4)] .
PREGNANCY CATEGORY D
Use of drugs that act on the renin-angiotensin system during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy reduces fetal renal function and increases fetal and neonatal morbidity and death. Resulting oligohydramnios can be associated with fetal lung hypoplasia and skeletal deformations. Potential neonatal adverse effects include skull hypoplasia, anuria, hypotension, renal failure, and death. When pregnancy is detected, discontinue benazepril hydrochloride tablets as soon as possible [see Use in Specific Populations ( 8.1)] .
Head and Neck Angioedema
Angioedema of the face, extremities, lips, tongue, glottis, and/or larynx including some fatal reactions, have occured in patients treated with benazepril hydrochloride. Patients with involvement of the tongue, glottis or larynx are likely to experience airway obstruction, especially those with a history of airway surgery. Benazepril hydrochloride should be promptly discontinued and appropriate therapy and monitoring should be provided until complete and sustained resolution of signs and symptoms of angioedema has occurred.
Patients with a history of angioedema unrelated to ACE inhibitor therapy may be at increased risk of angioedema while receiving an ACE inhibitor [see Contraindications ( 4)] . ACE inhibitors have been associated with a higher rate of angioedema in Black than in non-Black patients.
Patients receiving coadministration of ACE inhibitor and mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) inhibitor (e.g., temsirolimus, sirolimus, everolimus) therapy may be at increased risk for angioedema.
Intestinal angioedema has occurred in patients treated with ACE inhibitors. These patients presented with abdominal pain (with or without nausea or vomiting); in some cases there was no prior history of facial angioedema and C-1 esterase levels were normal. In some cases, the angioedema was diagnosed by procedures including abdominal CT scan or ultrasound, or at surgery, and symptoms resolved after stopping the ACE inhibitor.
Anaphylactoid Reactions During Desensitization
Two patients undergoing desensitizing treatment with hymenoptera venom while receiving ACE inhibitors sustained life-threatening anaphylactoid reactions.
Anaphylactoid Reactions During Dialysis
Sudden and potentially life threatening anaphylactoid reactions have occured in some patients dialyzed with high-flux membranes and treated concomitantly with an ACE inhibitor. In such patients, dialysis must be stopped immediately, and aggressive therapy for anaphylactoid reactions must be initiated. Symptoms have not been relieved by antihistamines in these situations. In these patients, consideration should be given to using a different type of dialysis membrane or a different class of antihypertensive agent. Anaphylactoid reactions have also been reported in patients undergoing low-density lipoprotein apheresis with dextran sulfate absorption.
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