Benicar HCT (Page 3 of 6)

7 DRUG INTERACTIONS

7.1 Agents Increasing Serum Potassium

Coadministration of BENICAR HCT with other drugs that raise serum potassium levels may result in hyperkalemia. Monitor serum potassium in such patients.

7.2 Lithium

Increases in serum lithium concentrations and lithium toxicity have been reported during concomitant administration of lithium with angiotensin II receptor antagonists or hydrochlorothiazide. Monitor serum lithium levels during concomitant use.

7. 3 Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents including Selective Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitors (COX-2 Inhibitors)

Olmesartan medoxomil

In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function, co-administration of NSAIDs, including selective COX-2 inhibitors, with angiotensin II receptor antagonists (including olmesartan medoxomil) may result in deterioration of renal function, including possible acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Monitor renal function periodically in patients receiving olmesartan medoxomil and NSAID therapy.

The antihypertensive effect of angiotensin II receptor antagonists, including olmesartan medoxomil may be attenuated by NSAIDs including selective COX-2 inhibitors.

Hydrochlorothiazide

In some patients the administration of a NSAID can reduce the diuretic, natriuretic, and antihypertensive effects of thiazide diuretics. Therefore, monitor blood pressure closely.

7.4 Dual Blockade of the Renin Angiotensin System

Dual blockade of the RAS with angiotensin receptor blockers, ACE inhibitors, or aliskiren is associated with increased risks of hypotension, hyperkalemia, and changes in renal function (including acute renal failure) compared to monotherapy. Most patients receiving the combination of two RAS inhibitors do not obtain any additional benefit compared to monotherapy. In general, avoid combined use of RAS inhibitors. Closely monitor blood pressure, renal function and electrolytes in patients on BENICAR HCT and other agents that affect the RAS.

Do not co-administer aliskiren with BENICAR HCT in patients with diabetes [see Contraindications (4)]. Avoid use of aliskiren with BENICAR HCT in patients with renal impairment (GFR <60 ml/min).

7.5 Colesevelam H ydrochloride

Concurrent administration of bile acid sequestering agent colesevelam hydrochloride reduces the systemic exposure and peak plasma concentration of olmesartan. Administration of olmesartan at least 4 hours prior to colesevelam hydrochloride decreased the drug interaction effect. Consider administering olmesartan at least 4 hours before the colesevelam hydrochloride dose [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

7. 6 Use of Hydrochlorothiazide with Other Drugs

When administered concurrently the following drugs may interact with thiazide diuretics:

Antidiabetic drugs (oral agents and insulin) : Dosage adjustment of the antidiabetic drug may be required.

Ion exchange resins: Staggering the dosage of hydrochlorothiazide and ion exchange resins (e.g., cholestyramine, colestipol) such that hydrochlorothiazide is administered at least 4 hours before or 4 – 6 hours after the administration of resins would potentially minimize the interaction [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)] .

Corticosteroids, ACTH : Intensified electrolyte depletion, particularly hypokalemia.

8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

8.1 Pregnancy

Pregnancy Category D

Use of drugs that act on the renin-angiotensin system during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy reduces fetal renal function and increases fetal and neonatal morbidity, and death. Resulting oligohydramnios can be associated with fetal lung hypoplasia and skeletal deformations. Potential neonatal adverse effects include skull hypoplasia, anuria, hypotension, renal failure, and death. When pregnancy is detected, discontinue BENICAR HCT as soon as possible. These adverse outcomes are usually associated with use of these drugs in the second and third trimester of pregnancy. Most epidemiologic studies examining fetal abnormalities after exposure to antihypertensive use in the first trimester have not distinguished drugs affecting the renin-angiotensin system from other antihypertensive agents. Appropriate management of maternal hypertension during pregnancy is important to optimize outcomes for both mother and fetus.

In the unusual case that there is no appropriate alternative to therapy with drugs affecting the renin-angiotensin system for a particular patient, apprise the mother of the potential risk to the fetus. Perform serial ultrasound examinations to assess the intraamniotic environment. If oligohydramnios is observed, discontinue BENICAR HCT, unless it is considered lifesaving for the mother. Fetal testing may be appropriate, based on the week of pregnancy. Patients and physicians should be aware, however, that oligohydramnios may not appear until after the fetus has sustained irreversible injury. Closely observe infants with histories of in utero exposure to BENICAR HCT for hypotension, oliguria, and hyperkalemia [see Use in Specific Populations (8.4)].

8.3 Nursing Mothers

It is not known whether olmesartan is excreted in human milk, but olmesartan is secreted at low concentration in the milk of lactating rats. Thiazides appear in human milk. Because of the potential for adverse effects on the nursing infant, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or discontinue BENICAR HCT, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.

8.4 Pediatric Use

Neonates with a history of in utero exposure to BENICAR HCT:

If oliguria or hypotension occurs, direct attention toward support of blood pressure and renal perfusion. Exchange transfusions or dialysis may be required as a means of reversing hypotension and substituting for disordered renal function.

Safety and effectiveness of BENICAR HCT in pediatric patients have not been established.

8.5 Geriatric Use

Clinical studies of BENICAR HCT did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal or cardiac function and of concomitant diseases or other drug therapy.

Olmesartan and hydrochlorothiazide are substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of toxic reactions to BENICAR HCT may be greater in patients with impaired renal function.

8.6 Renal Impairment

Safety and effectiveness of BENICAR HCT in patients with severe renal impairment (CrCl ≤ 30 mL/min) have not been established. No dose adjustment is required in patients with mild (CrCl 60-90 mL/min) or moderate (CrCl 30-60) renal impairment.

8.7 Hepatic Impairment

Olmesartan medox o mil

No dose adjustment is necessary for patients with mild-to-severe liver disease.

H ydrochlorothiazide

Minor alterations of fluid and electrolyte balance may precipitate hepatic coma in patients with impaired hepatic function or progressive liver disease.

10 OVERDOSAGE

Olmesartan medoxomil

Limited data are available related to overdosage of olmesartan medoxomil in humans. The most likely manifestations of overdosage would be hypotension and tachycardia; bradycardia could be encountered if parasympathetic (vagal) stimulation occurs. If symptomatic hypotension should occur, supportive treatment should be initiated. The dialyzability of olmesartan is unknown.

No lethality was observed in acute toxicity studies in mice and rats given single oral doses up to 2000 mg/kg olmesartan medoxomil. The minimum lethal oral dose of olmesartan medoxomil in dogs was greater than 1500 mg/kg.

Hydrochlorothiazide

The most common signs and symptoms of hydrochlorothiazide overdose observed in humans are those caused by electrolyte depletion (hypokalemia, hypochloremia, hyponatremia) and dehydration resulting from excessive diuresis. If digitalis has also been administered, hypokalemia may accentuate cardiac arrhythmias. The degree to which hydrochlorothiazide is removed by hemodialysis has not been established. The oral LD50 of hydrochlorothiazide is greater than 10 g/kg in both mice and rats.

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