Adverse Reactions to Benicar HctOlmesartan medoxomil-hydrochlorothiazide
Olmesartan medoxomil-hydrochlorothiazide has been evaluated for safety in 1243 hypertensive patients. Treatment with olmesartan medoxomil-hydrochlorothiazide was well tolerated, with an incidence of adverse events similar to placebo. Events generally were mild, transient and had no relationship to the dose of olmesartan medoxomil-hydrochlorothiazide.
In the clinical trials, the overall frequency of adverse events was not dose-related. Analysis of gender, age and race groups demonstrated no differences between olmesartan medoxomil-hydrochlorothiazide and placebo-treated patients. The rate of withdrawals due to adverse events in all trials of hypertensive patients was 2.0% (25/1243) of patients treated with olmesartan medoxomil-hydrochlorothiazide and 2.0% (7/342) of patients treated with placebo.
In a placebo-controlled clinical trial, the following adverse events reported with olmesartan medoxomil-hydrochlorothiazide occurred in >2% of patients, and more often on the olmesartan medoxomil-hydrochlorothiazide combination than on placebo, regardless of drug relationship:
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The following adverse events were also reported at a rate of >2%, but were as, or more, common in the placebo group: headache and urinary tract infection.
Other adverse events that have been reported with an incidence of greater than 1.0%, whether or not attributed to treatment, in the more than 1200 hypertensive patients treated with olmesartan medoxomil-hydrochlorothiazide in controlled or open-label trials are listed below.
Body as a Whole: chest pain, back pain,
Central and Peripheral Nervous System: vertigo
Gastrointestinal: abdominal pain, dyspepsia, gastroenteritis, diarrhea
Liver and Biliary System: SGOT increased, GGT increased, SGPT increased
Metabolic and Nutritional: hyperlipemia, creatine phosphokinase increased, hyperglycemia
Musculoskeletal: arthritis, arthralgia, myalgia
Respiratory System: coughing
Skin and Appendages Disorders: rash
Urinary System: hematuria
Facial edema was reported in 2/1243 patients receiving olmesartan medoxomil-hydrochlorothiazide. Angioedema has been reported with angiotensin II receptor antagonists.Olmesartan medoxomil
Other adverse events that have been reported with an incidence of greater than 0.5%, whether or not attributed to treatment, in more than 3100 hypertensive patients treated with olmesartan medoxomil monotherapy in controlled or open-label trials are tachycardia and hypercholesterolemia.Hydrochlorothiazide
Other adverse experiences that have been reported with hydrochlorothiazide, without regard to causality, are listed below:
Body as a Whole: weakness
Digestive: pancreatitis, jaundice (intrahepatic cholestatic jaundice), sialadenitis, cramping, gastric irritation
Hematologic: aplastic anemia, agranulocytosis, leukopenia, hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia
Hypersensitivity: purpura, photosensitivity, urticaria, necrotizing angiitis (vasculitis and cutaneous vasculitis), fever, respiratory distress including pneumonitis and pulmonary edema, anaphylactic reactions
Metabolic: hyperglycemia, glycosuria, hyperuricemia
Musculoskeletal: muscle spasm
Nervous System/Psychiatric: restlessness
Renal: renal failure, renal dysfunction, interstitial nephritis
Skin: erythema multiforme including Stevens-Johnson syndrome, exfoliative dermatitis including toxic epidermal necrolysis
Special Senses: transient blurred vision, xanthopsia
Laboratory Test Findings
In controlled clinical trials, clinically important changes in standard laboratory parameters were rarely associated with administration of olmesartan medoxomil-hydrochlorothiazide.
Creatinine, Blood Urea Nitrogen: Increases in blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine of >50% were observed in 1.3% of patients. No patients were discontinued from clinical trials of olmesartan medoxomil-hydrochlorothiazide due to increased BUN or creatinine.
Hemoglobin and Hematocrit: A greater than 20% decrease in hemoglobin and hematocrit was observed in 0.0 % and 0.4% (one patient), respectively, of olmesartan medoxomil-hydrochlorothiazide patients, compared with 0.0% and 0.0%, respectively, in placebo-treated patients. No patients were discontinued due to anemia.
Post-Marketing Experience: The following adverse reactions have been reported in post-marketing experience:
Body as a Whole: Asthenia, angioedema
Metabolic and Nutritional Disorders: Hyperkalemia
Urogenital System: Acute renal failure, increased blood creatinine levels Skin and Appendages: Alopecia, pruritus, urticaria
Limited data are available related to overdosage in humans. The most likely manifestations of overdosage would be hypotension and tachycardia; bradycardia could be encountered if parasympathetic (vagal) stimulation occurs. If symptomatic hypotension should occur, supportive treatment should be initiated. The dialyzability of olmesartan is unknown.
No lethality was observed in acute toxicity studies in mice and rats given single oral doses up to 2000 mg/kg olmesartan medoxomil. The minimum lethal oral dose of olmesartan medoxomil in dogs was greater than 1500 mg/kg.Hydrochlorothiazide
The most common signs and symptoms of overdose observed in humans are those caused by electrolyte depletion (hypokalemia, hypochloremia, hyponatremia) and dehydration resulting from excessive diuresis. If digitalis has also been administered, hypokalemia may accentuate cardiac arrhythmias. The degree to which hydrochlorothiazide is removed by hemodialysis has not been established. The oral LD50 of hydrochlorothiazide is greater than 10 g/kg in both mice and rats.
The usual recommended starting dose of BENICAR® (olmesartan medoxomil) is 20 mg once daily when used as monotherapy in patients who are not volume-contracted. For patients requiring further reduction in blood pressure after 2 weeks of therapy, the dose may be increased to 40 mg. Doses above 40 mg do not appear to have greater effect. Twice-daily dosing offers no advantage over the same total dose given once daily. No initial dosage adjustment is recommended for elderly patients, for patients with moderate to marked renal impairment (creatinine clearance <40mL/min) or with moderate to marked hepatic dysfunction (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, Special Populations ). For patients with possible depletion of intravascular volume (e.g., patients treated with diuretics, particularly those with impaired renal function), BENICAR® should be initiated under close medical supervision and consideration should be given to use of a lower starting dose (see WARNINGS, Hypotension in Volume- or Salt-Depleted Patients).
Hydrochlorothiazide is effective in doses between 12.5 mg and 50 mg once daily.
The side effects (see WARNINGS) of BENICAR® are generally rare and independent of dose; those of hydrochlorothiazide are most typically dose-dependent (primarily hypokalemia). Some dose-independent phenomena (e.g., pancreatitis) do occur with hydrochlorothiazide. Therapy with any combination of olmesartan medoxomil and hydrochlorothiazide will be associated with both sets of dose-independent side effects.
To minimize dose-independent side effects, it is usually appropriate to begin combination therapy only after a patient has failed to achieve the desired effect with monotherapy.
BENICAR HCT ® (olmesartan medoxomil-hydrochlorothiazide) may be substituted for its titrated components.
Dose Titration by Clinical Effect
BENICAR HCT ® is available in strengths of 20 mg/12.5 mg, 40 mg/12.5 mg and 40 mg/25 mg. A patient whose blood pressure is inadequately controlled by BENICAR® or hydrochlorothiazide alone may be switched to once daily BENICAR HCT ® (olmesartan medoxomil-hydrochlorothiazide).
Dosing should be individualized. Depending on the blood pressure response, the dose may be titrated at intervals of 2-4 weeks.
If blood pressure is not controlled by BENICAR® alone, hydrochlorothiazide may be added starting with a dose of 12.5 mg and later titrated to 25 mg once daily.
If a patient is taking hydrochlorothiazide, BENICAR® may be added starting with a dose of 20 mg once daily and titrated to 40 mg, for inadequate blood pressure control. If large doses of hydrochlorothiazide have been used as monotherapy and volume depletion or hyponatremia is present, caution should be used when adding BENICAR® or switching to BENICAR HCT ® as marked decreases in blood pressure may occur (see WARNINGS, Hypotension in Volume- or Salt-Depleted Patients). Consideration should be given to reducing the dose of hydrochlorothiazide to 12.5 mg before adding BENICAR®. The antihypertensive effect of BENICAR HCT ® is related to the dose of both components over the range of 10 mg/12.5 mg to 40 mg/25 mg (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, Clinical Trials). The dose of BENICAR HCT ® is one tablet once daily. More than one tablet daily is not recommended.
BENICAR HCT ® may be administered with other antihypertensive agents.
Patients with Renal Impairment
The usual regimens of therapy with BENICAR HCT ® may be followed provided the patient’s creatinine clearance is >30 mL/min. In patients with more severe renal impairment, loop diuretics are preferred to thiazides, so BENICAR HCT ® is not recommended.
Patients with Hepatic Impairment
No dosage adjustment is necessary with hepatic impairment (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, Special Populations ).
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