BETHKIS- tobramycin solution
Chiesi USA, Inc.
BETHKIS is indicated for the management of cystic fibrosis patients with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Safety and efficacy have not been demonstrated in patients under the age of six years, patients with FEV1 less than 40% or greater than 80% predicted, or patients colonized with Burkholderia cepacia [s ee Clinical Studies (14)].
Bethkis is for oral inhalation only [see Dosage and Administration (2.2)]. The recommended dosage of BETHKIS for patients six years of age and older is to administer one single-use ampule (300 mg/4 mL) twice daily by oral inhalation in repeated cycles of 28 days on drug, followed by 28 days off drug. The doses should be taken as close to 12 hours apart as possible and not less than 6 hours apart.
The 300 mg/4 mL dose of BETHKIS is the same for patients regardless of age or weight. BETHKIS has not been studied in patients less than six years old.
If patients miss a dose, they should take it as soon as possible anytime up to 6 hours prior to their next scheduled dose. If less than 6 hours remain before the next dose, wait until their next scheduled dose.
BETHKIS is administered by oral inhalation using a hand-held PARI LC PLUS Reusable Nebulizer with a PARI Vios Air compressor over an approximately 15 minute period and until sputtering from the output of the nebulizer has occurred for at least one minute. BETHKIS should not be diluted or mixed with dornase alfa or other medications in the nebulizer. BETHKIS is not for subcutaneous, intravenous, or intrathecal administration.
Further patient instructions on how to administer BETHKIS are provided in the Patient’s Instructions for Use [see Patient Counseling Information ( 17)].
BETHKIS should not be used if it is cloudy, if there are particles in the solution, or if it has been stored at room temperature for more than 28 days.
BETHKIS is supplied as a sterile, clear, colorless to pale yellow, non-pyrogenic, aqueous inhalational solution for nebulization in single-use 4 mL ampule containing 300 mg of tobramycin.
BETHKIS is contraindicated in patients with a known hypersensitivity to any aminoglycoside.
Caution should be exercised when prescribing BETHKIS to patients with known or suspected auditory or vestibular dysfunction.
Findings related to ototoxicity as measured by audiometric evaluations and auditory adverse event reports were similar between BETHKIS and placebo in controlled clinical trials. Hearing loss was reported in two (1.1%) BETHKIS-treated patients and in one (0.9%) placebo-treated patient during clinical studies. Additionally, dizziness and vertigo, both of which may be manifestations of vestibular forms of ototoxicity, were observed in similar numbers of BETHKIS- and placebo-treated patients. Dizziness occurred in two (1.1%) BETHKIS-treated patients and one (0.9%) placebo-treated patient and vertigo occurred in two (1.1%) BETHKIS-treated patients versus no placebo patients in clinical studies. None of the BETHKIS patients discontinued their therapy due to hearing loss, dizziness or vertigo.
Tinnitus may be a sentinel symptom of ototoxicity. No reports of tinnitus occurred in patients during clinical studies with BETHKIS, but because it has been observed with inhaled tobramycin solutions [see Adverse Reactions (6.2)] , onset of this symptom warrants caution. Ototoxicity, manifested as both auditory and vestibular toxicity, has been reported with parenteral aminoglycosides. Vestibular toxicity may be manifested by vertigo, ataxia or dizziness. Patients with known or suspected auditory or vestibular dysfunction should be closely monitored when taking BETHKIS. Monitoring may include obtaining audiometric evaluations and serum tobramycin levels. If ototoxicity is noted, the patient should be managed as medically appropriate, including potentially discontinuing BETHKIS.
Caution should be exercised when prescribing BETHKIS to patients with known or suspected renal dysfunction.
Nephrotoxicity was not seen during BETHKIS clinical studies but has been associated with aminoglycosides as a class. Patients with known or suspected renal dysfunction or taking concomitant nephrotoxic drugs along with BETHKIS should have serum concentrations of tobramycin and laboratory measurements of renal function obtained at the discretion of the treating physician. If nephrotoxicity develops, the patient should be managed as medically appropriate, including potentially discontinuing BETHKIS until serum concentrations fall below 2 mcg/mL.
Twenty-six (14%) BETHKIS patients and 15 (13%) placebo patients had increases in serum creatinine of at least 50% over baseline. Follow-up values were obtained for 17 of the 26 BETHKIS patients, all of which decreased to serum creatinine values that were within normal laboratory ranges. Patients who experience an increase in serum creatinine during treatment with BETHKIS should have their renal function closely monitored.
BETHKIS should be used cautiously in patients with muscular disorders.
Aminoglycosides, including tobramycin, may aggravate muscle weakness because of a potential curare-like effect on neuromuscular function. Neuromuscular blockade, respiratory failure, and prolonged respiratory paralysis may occur more commonly in patients with underlying neuromuscular disorders, such as myasthenia gravis or Parkinson’s disease. Prolonged respiratory paralysis may also occur in patients receiving concomitant neuromuscular blocking agents. If neuromuscular blockade occurs, it may be reversed by the administration of calcium salts but mechanical assistance may be necessary.
Bronchospasm has been reported with inhalation of tobramycin. In clinical studies with BETHKIS, bronchospasm was observed in one (0.5%) BETHKIS-treated patient and in no placebo-treated patients. Wheezing occurred in ten (5%) BETHKIS-treated patients and four (4%) placebo-treated patients. Bronchospasm and wheezing should be treated as medically appropriate.
Clinical studies of inhaled tobramycin solutions did not identify hearing loss using audiometric tests which evaluated hearing up to 8000 Hz. Physicians should consider an audiogram for patients who show any evidence of auditory dysfunction, or who are at increased risk for auditory dysfunction. Tinnitus may be a sentinel symptom of ototoxicity, and therefore the onset of this symptom warrants caution.
In patients with normal renal function treated with BETHKIS, serum tobramycin concentrations range from approximately 0.06-1.89 mcg/mL one hour after dose administration and do not require routine monitoring. Serum concentrations of tobramycin in patients with renal dysfunction or patients treated with concomitant parenteral tobramycin should be monitored at the discretion of the treating physician [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
The serum concentration of tobramycin should only be monitored through venipuncture and not finger prick blood sampling. Contamination of the skin of the fingers with tobramycin may lead to falsely increased measurements of serum levels of the drug. This contamination cannot be completely avoided by hand washing before testing.
The clinical studies of BETHKIS did not reveal any imbalance in the percentage of patients who experienced at least a 50% rise in serum creatinine from baseline in either the BETHKIS group (n=26, 14%) or the placebo group (n=15, 13%). Laboratory tests of urine and renal function should be conducted at the discretion of the treating physician.
Aminoglycosides can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Aminoglycosides cross the placenta, and streptomycin has been associated with several reports of total, irreversible, bilateral congenital deafness in pediatric patients exposed in utero. However, systemic absorption of tobramycin following inhaled administration is expected to be minimal [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Patients who use BETHKIS during pregnancy, or become pregnant while taking BETHKIS should be apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1)].
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