BIMATOPROST — bimatoprost solution/ drops
Somerset Therapeutics, LLC
The recommended dosage is one drop in the affected eye(s) once daily in the evening. Bimatoprost ophthalmic solution 0.03% should not be administered more than once daily since it has been shown that more frequent administration of prostaglandin analogs may decrease the intraocular pressure lowering effect.
Reduction of the intraocular pressure starts approximately 4 hours after the first administration with maximum effect reached within approximately 8 to 12 hours.
Bimatoprost ophthalmic solution 0.03% may be used concomitantly with other topical ophthalmic drug products to lower intraocular pressure. If more than one topical ophthalmic drug is being used, the drugs should be administered at least five (5) minutes apart.
Bimatoprost ophthalmic solution has been reported to cause changes to pigmented tissues. The most frequently reported changes have been increased pigmentation of the iris, periorbital tissue (eyelid) and eyelashes. Pigmentation is expected to increase as long as bimatoprost is administered. The pigmentation change is due to increased melanin content in the melanocytes rather than to an increase in the number of melanocytes. After discontinuation of bimatoprost, pigmentation of the iris is likely to be permanent, while pigmentation of the periorbital tissue and eyelash changes have been reported to be reversible in some patients. Patients who receive treatment should be informed of the possibility of increased pigmentation. The long term effects of increased pigmentation are not known.
Iris color change may not be noticeable for several months to years. Typically, the brown pigmentation around the pupil spreads concentrically towards the periphery of the iris and the entire iris or parts of the iris become more brownish. Neither nevi nor freckles of the iris appear to be affected by treatment. While treatment with bimatoprost ophthalmic solution 0.03% can be continued in patients who develop noticeably increased iris pigmentation, these patients should be examined regularly.
Bimatoprost ophthalmic solution 0.03% may gradually change eyelashes and vellus hair in the treated eye. These changes include increased length, thickness, and number of lashes. Eyelash changes are usually reversible upon discontinuation of treatment.
Prostaglandin analogs, including bimatoprost, have been reported to cause intraocular inflammation. In addition, because these products may exacerbate inflammation, caution should be used in patients with active intraocular inflammation (e.g., uveitis).
Macular edema, including cystoid macular edema, has been reported during treatment with bimatoprost ophthalmic solution. Bimatoprost ophthalmic solution 0.03% should be used with caution in aphakic patients, in pseudophakic patients with a torn posterior lens capsule, or in patients with known risk factors for macular edema.
There have been reports of bacterial keratitis associated with the use of multiple-dose containers of topical ophthalmic products. These containers had been inadvertently contaminated by patients who, in most cases, had a concurrent corneal disease or a disruption of the ocular epithelial surface.
Bimatoprost ophthalmic solution 0.03% contains benzalkonium chloride, which may be absorbed by and cause discoloration of soft contact lenses. Contact lenses should be removed prior to instillation of bimatoprost ophthalmic solution 0.03% and may be reinserted 15 minutes following its administration.
- Pigmentation [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]
- Eyelash Changes [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]
- Intraocular Inflammation [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]
- Macular Edema [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)]
- Hypersensitivity [see Contraindications (4)]
Because clinical studies are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical studies of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
In clinical trials, the most frequent events associated with the use of bimatoprost ophthalmic solution 0.03% occurring in approximately 15% to 45% of patients, in descending order of incidence, included conjunctival hyperemia, growth of eyelashes, and ocular pruritus. Approximately 3% of patients discontinued therapy due to conjunctival hyperemia.
Ocular adverse events occurring in approximately 3 to 10% of patients, in descending order of incidence, included ocular dryness, visual disturbance, ocular burning, foreign body sensation, eye pain, pigmentation of the periocular skin, blepharitis, cataract, superficial punctate keratitis, periorbital erythema, ocular irritation, and eyelash darkening. The following ocular adverse events reported in approximately 1 to 3% of patients, in descending order of incidence, included: eye discharge, tearing, photophobia, allergic conjunctivitis, asthenopia, increases in iris pigmentation, and conjunctival edema. In less than 1% of patients, intraocular inflammation was reported as iritis.
Systemic adverse events reported in approximately 10% of patients were infections (primarily colds and upper respiratory tract infections). The following systemic adverse events reported in approximately 1 to 5% of patients, in descending order of incidence, included headaches, abnormal liver function tests, asthenia and hirsutism.
The following adverse reactions have been identified during postapproval use of bimatoprost ophthalmic solution 0.03%. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. The reactions, which have been chosen for inclusion due to either their seriousness, frequency of reporting, possible causal connection to bimatoprost ophthalmic solution, or a combination of these factors, include: abnormal hair growth, asthma-like symptoms, dizziness, dyspnea, eyelid edema, hypersensitivity reaction including signs and symptoms of eye allergy and allergic dermatitis, hypertension, nausea, and periorbital and lid changes associated with periorbital fat atrophy leading to skin tightness, deepening of the eyelid sulcus, eyelid ptosis, enophthalmos and eyelid retraction; and skin discoloration (non-periocular).
There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of bimatoprost ophthalmic solution 0.03% administration in pregnant women. There is no increase in the risk of major birth defects or miscarriages based on bimatoprost postmarketing experience.
In embryofetal developmental studies, administration of bimatoprost in pregnant mice and rats during organogensis, resulted in abortion and early delivery at oral doses at least 33 times (mice) or 94 times (rats) the human exposure at the recommended clinical dose (based on blood area under the curve [AUC] levels). These adverse effects were not observed at 2.6 times (mice) and 47 times (rats) the human exposure at the recommended clinical dose.
In pre/postnatal development studies, administration of bimatoprost to pregnant rats from organogenesis to the end of lactation resulted in reduced gestation length and fetal body weight, and increased fetal and pup mortality at oral doses at least 41 times the human systemic exposure at the recommended clinical dose (based on blood AUC levels). No adverse effects were observed in rat offspring at exposures estimated at 14 times the human exposure at the recommended clinical dose (based on blood AUC levels).
Because animal reproductive studies are not always predictive of human response bimatoprost ophthalmic solution 0.03% should be administered during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
In an embryofetal development rat study, abortion was observed in pregnant rats administered bimatoprost orally during organogenesis at 0.6 mg/kg/day (94 times the human systemic exposure at the recommended human ophthalmic dose [RHOD], based on AUC). The No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) for abortion was 0.3 mg/kg/day (estimated at 47 times the human systemic exposure at the RHOD, based on AUC). No abnormalities were observed in rat fetuses at doses up to 0.6 mg/kg/day.
In an embryofetal development mouse study, abortion and early delivery were observed in pregnant mice administered bimatoprost orally during organogenesis at doses greater than or equal to 0.3 mg/kg/day (33 times the human systemic exposure at the RHOD, based on AUC). The NOAEL for abortion and early delivery was 0.1 mg/kg/day (2.6 times the human systemic exposure at the RHOD, based on AUC). No abnormalities were observed in mouse fetuses at doses up to 0.6 mg/kg/day (72 times the human systemic exposure at the RHOD, based on AUC).
In a pre/postnatal development study, treatment of pregnant rats with bimatoprost orally from gestation day 7 to lactation day 20 resulted in reduced gestation length, increased late resorptions, fetal deaths, and postnatal pup mortality, and reduced pup body weight at doses greater than or equal to 0.3 mg/kg/day. These effects were observed at exposures at least 41 times the human systemic exposure at the RHOD, based on AUC. The NOAEL for postnatal development and mating performance of the offspring was 0.1 mg/kg/day (estimated at 14 times the human systemic exposure at the RHOD, based on AUC).
All MedLibrary.org resources are included in as near-original form as possible, meaning that the information from the original provider has been rendered here with only typographical or stylistic modifications and not with any substantive alterations of content, meaning or intent.