Bivalirudin (Page 2 of 4)

2.4 Storage after Reconstitution

Do not freeze reconstituted or diluted bivalirudin. Reconstituted material may be stored at 2° to 8°C for up to 24 hours. Diluted bivalirudin with a concentration of between 0.5 mg/mL and 5 mg/mL is stable at room temperature for up to 24 hours. Discard any unused portion of reconstituted solution remaining in the vial.

3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS

For injection: 250 mg of bivalirudin as a lyophilized powder in a single-dose vial for reconstitution. Each vial contains 250 mg of bivalirudin equivalent to an average of 275 mg bivalirudin trifluoroacetate*.

* The range of bivalirudin trifluoroacetate is 270 to 280 mg based on a range of trifluoroacetic acid composition of 1.7 to 2.6 equivalents.

4 CONTRAINDICATIONS

Bivalirudin is contraindicated in patients with:

Active major bleeding;
Hypersensitivity (e.g., anaphylaxis) to bivalirudin or its components [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)].

5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

5.1 Bleeding Events

Bivalirudin increases the risk of bleeding [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)]. An unexplained fall in blood pressure or hematocrit should lead to serious consideration of a hemorrhagic event and cessation of bivalirudin administration. Monitor patients receiving bivalirudin for signs and symptoms of bleeding. Monitor patients with disease states associated with an increased risk of bleeding more frequently for bleeding.

5.2 Acute Stent Thrombosis in Patients with STEMI Undergoing PCI

Acute stent thrombosis (AST) (less than 4 hours) has been observed at a greater frequency in bivalirudin treated patients (1.2%, 36/2889) compared to heparin treated patients (0.2%, 6/2911) with STEMI undergoing primary PCI. Among patients who experienced an AST, one fatality (0.03%) occurred in a bivalirudin treated patient and one fatality (0.03%) in a heparin treated patient. These patients have been managed by Target Vessel Revascularization (TVR). Patients should remain for at least 24 hours in a facility capable of managing ischemic complications and should be carefully monitored following primary PCI for signs and symptoms consistent with myocardial ischemia.

5.3 Thrombotic Risk with Coronary Artery Brachytherapy

An increased risk of thrombus formation, including fatal outcomes, has been associated with the use of bivalirudin in gamma brachytherapy.

If a decision is made to use bivalirudin during brachytherapy procedures, maintain meticulous catheter technique, with frequent aspiration and flushing, paying special attention to minimizing conditions of stasis within the catheter or vessels [see Adverse Reactions (6.3)].

6 ADVERSE REACTIONS

6.1 Clinical Trials Experience

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.

In the BAT trials, 79 of the 2161 (3.7%) patients undergoing PCI for treatment of unstable angina and randomized to bivalirudin experienced major bleeding events which consisted of: intracranial bleeding, retroperitoneal bleeding, and clinically overt bleeding with a decrease in hemoglobin greater than 3 g/dL or leading to a transfusion of greater than 2 units of blood.

6.2 Immunogenicity

As with all peptides, there is potential for immunogenicity. The detection of antibody formation is highly dependent on the sensitivity and specificity of the assay. Additionally, the observed incidence of antibody (including neutralizing antibody) positivity in an assay may be influenced by several factors including assay methodology, sample handling, timing of sample collection, concomitant medications, and underlying disease. For these reasons, comparison of the incidence of antibodies to bivalirudin in the studies described below with the incidence of antibodies in other studies or to other products may be misleading.

In in vitro studies, bivalirudin exhibited no platelet aggregation response against sera from patients with a history of HIT/HITTS.

Among 494 subjects who received bivalirudin in clinical trials and were tested for antibodies, 2 subjects had treatment-emergent positive bivalirudin antibody tests. Neither subject demonstrated clinical evidence of allergic or anaphylactic reactions and repeat testing was not performed. Nine additional patients who had initial positive tests were negative on repeat testing.

6.3 Postmarketing Experience

Because postmarketing adverse reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.

The following adverse reactions have been identified during post approval use of bivalirudin: fatal bleeding; hypersensitivity and allergic reactions including reports of anaphylaxis; lack of anticoagulant effect; thrombus formation during PCI with and without intracoronary brachytherapy, including reports of fatal outcomes; pulmonary hemorrhage; cardiac tamponade; and INR increased.

7 DRUG INTERACTIONS

In clinical trials in patients undergoing PCI/ percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA), coadministration of bivalirudin with heparin, warfarin, thrombolytics, or GPIs was associated with increased risks of major bleeding events compared to patients not receiving these concomitant medications.

8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

8.1 Pregnancy

Risk Summary

There are no data available on use of bivalirudin in pregnant women to inform a drug-associated risk of adverse developmental outcomes. Reproduction studies in rats and rabbits administered subcutaneously doses up to 1.6 times and 3.2 times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of 15 mg/kg/day based on body surface area (BSA) during organogenesis, respectively, revealed no evidence of fetal harm.

All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcomes. The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2 to 4% and 15 to 20%, respectively.

Data

Animal Data

Reproductive studies have been performed in rats at subcutaneous doses up to 150 mg/kg/day (1.6 times the maximum recommended human dose based on body surface area) and rabbits at subcutaneous doses up to 150 mg/kg/day (3.2 times the maximum recommended human dose based on body surface area). These studies revealed no harm to the fetus attributable to bivalirudin.

At 500 mg/kg/day (equivalent to 5.4 times the maximum recommended human dose based on body surface area) subcutaneously, litter sizes and live fetuses in rats were reduced. Fetal skeletal variations were also noted. Some of these changes could be attributed to maternal toxicity observed at high doses.

There is no study covering the perinatal period because of the potential complications of drug-induced hemorrhage during delivery.

8.2 Lactation

Risk Summary

It is not known whether bivalirudin is present in human milk. No data are available on the effects on the breastfed child or on milk production.

Bivalirudin was administered to lactating rats in reproduction studies (see Data). The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for bivalirudin and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed child from bivalirudin or from the underlying maternal condition.

Data

Animal Data

Reproduction studies conducted in lactating female rats dosed subcutaneously daily with bivalirudin at doses up to 150 mg/kg/day (1.6 times the maximum recommended human dose, based on body surface area) from day 2 through day 20 of lactation revealed no adverse developmental outcomes to the pups.

8.4 Pediatric Use

The safety and effectiveness of bivalirudin in pediatric patients have not been established.

8.5 Geriatric Use

In studies of patients undergoing PCI, 44% were ≥65 years of age and 12% of patients were ≥75 years old. Elderly patients experienced more bleeding events than younger patients.

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