BIVALIRUDIN RTU — bivalirudin injection, solution
Athenex Pharmaceutical Division, LLC.
Bivalirudin RTU Injection is indicated for use as an anticoagulant in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), including patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and thrombosis syndrome.
The recommended dose of Bivalirudin RTU Injection is an intravenous bolus dose of 0.75 mg/kg, followed immediately by a maintenance infusion of 1.75 mg/kg/h for the duration of the procedure. Five minutes after the bolus dose has been administered, assess activated clotting time (ACT) to determine if an additional bolus of 0.3 mg/kg is needed.
Consider extending duration of infusion following PCI at 1.75 mg/kg/h for up to 4 hours post-procedure in patients with ST segment elevation MI (STEMI).
No reduction in the bolus dose is needed for any degree of renal impairment.
In patients with creatinine clearance less than 30 mL/min (by Cockcroft Gault equation), reduce the infusion rate to 1 mg/kg/h.
Inspection of Container
Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration, whenever solution and container permit.
Once removed from refrigerator, use immediately [see How Supplied Storage and Handling (16.2)]. Discard any unused portion.
No incompatibilities have been observed with administration sets.
Do not administer the drugs listed in Table 1 in the same intravenous line with Bivalirudin RTU Injection.
Bivalirudin RTU Injection, clear to slightly opalescent, colorless to yellow sterile solution:
- 250 mg of bivalirudin per 50 mL (5 mg per mL) in a single-dose vial. Ready-to-use. Each vial contains 250 mg of bivalirudin equivalent to an average of 275 mg bivalirudin trifluoroacetate*.
*The range of bivalirudin trifluoroacetate is 270 to 280 mg based on a range of trifluoroacetic acid composition of 1.7 to 2.6 equivalents.
Bivalirudin RTU Injection is contraindicated in patients with:
- Significant active bleeding;
- Hypersensitivity to Bivalirudin RTU Injection or its components [see Adverse Reactions (6.2)].
An increased risk of thrombus formation, including fatal outcomes, has been associated with the use of bivalirudin in gamma brachytherapy [see Adverse Reactions (6.2)].
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
In the BAT trials, 79 of the 2161 (3.7%) of subjects undergoing PCI for treatment of unstable angina and randomized to bivalirudin experienced intracranial bleeding, retroperitoneal bleeding, clinically overt bleeding with a decrease in hemoglobin greater than 3 g/dL or leading to a transfusion of greater than 2 units of blood.
As with all therapeutic proteins, there is potential for immunogenicity. The detection of antibody formation is highly dependent on the sensitivity and specificity of the assay. Additionally, the observed incidence of antibody (including neutralizing antibody) positivity in an assay may be influenced by several factors including assay methodology, sample handling, timing of sample collection, concomitant medications, and underlying disease. For these reasons, comparison of the incidence of antibodies to bivalirudin in the studies described below with the incidence of antibodies in other studies or to other products may be misleading.
In in vitro studies, bivalirudin exhibited no platelet aggregation response against sera from patients with a history of HIT/HITTS.
Among 494 subjects who received bivalirudin in clinical trials and were tested for antibodies, 2 subjects had treatment-emergent positive bivalirudin antibody tests. Neither subject demonstrated clinical evidence of allergic or anaphylactic reactions and repeat testing was not performed. Nine additional patients who had initial positive tests were negative on repeat testing.
Because postmarketing adverse reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of bivalirudin: fatal bleeding; hypersensitivity and allergic reactions including reports of anaphylaxis; lack of anticoagulant effect; thrombus formation during PCI with and without intracoronary brachytherapy, including reports of fatal outcomes; pulmonary hemorrhage; cardiac tamponade; and INR increased.
In clinical trials in patients undergoing PCI, co-administration of bivalirudin with heparin, warfarin, thrombolytics, or GPIs was associated with increased risks of major bleeding events compared to patients not receiving these concomitant medications.
There are no available data on use of bivalirudin in pregnant women to inform a drug-associated risk of adverse developmental outcomes. Reproduction studies in rats and rabbits administered subcutaneously (SC) doses up to 1.6 times and 3.2 times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) based on body surface area (BSA), respectively, revealed no evidence of fetal harm.
All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcomes. The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2 to 4% and 15 to 20%, respectively.
Reproductive studies have been performed in rats at subcutaneous doses up to 150 mg/kg/day, (1.6 times the maximum recommended human dose based on body surface area) and rabbits at subcutaneous doses up to 150 mg/kg/day (3.2 times the maximum recommended human dose based on body surface area). These studies revealed no harm to the fetus attributable to bivalirudin.
At 500 mg/kg/day subcutaneously, litter sizes and live fetuses in rats were reduced. Fetal skeletal variations were also noted. Some of these changes could be attributed to maternal toxicity observed at high doses.
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