BRILINTA (Page 4 of 8)

11 DESCRIPTION

BRILINTA contains ticagrelor, a cyclopentyltriazolopyrimidine, inhibitor of platelet activation and aggregation mediated by the P2Y12 ADP-receptor. Chemically it is (1S ,2S ,3R ,5S)-3-[7-{[(1R ,2S)-2-(3,4-difluorophenyl)cyclopropyl]amino}-5-(propylthio)-3H -[1,2,3]-triazolo[4,5-d ]pyrimidin-3-yl]-5-(2-hydroxyethoxy)cyclopentane-1,2-diol. The empirical formula of ticagrelor is C23 H28 F2 N6 O4 S and its molecular weight is 522.57. The chemical structure of ticagrelor is:

chemical structure
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Ticagrelor is a crystalline powder with an aqueous solubility of approximately 10 μg/mL at room temperature.

BRILINTA 90 mg tablets for oral administration contain 90 mg of ticagrelor and the following ingredients: mannitol, dibasic calcium phosphate, sodium starch glycolate, hydroxypropyl cellulose, magnesium stearate, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, titanium dioxide, talc, polyethylene glycol 400, and ferric oxide yellow.

BRILINTA 60 mg tablets for oral administration contain 60 mg of ticagrelor and the following ingredients: mannitol, dibasic calcium phosphate, sodium starch glycolate, hydroxypropyl cellulose, magnesium stearate, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, titanium dioxide, polyethylene glycol 400, ferric oxide black, and ferric oxide red.

12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

12.1 Mechanism of Action

Ticagrelor and its major metabolite reversibly interact with the platelet P2Y12 ADP-receptor to prevent signal transduction and platelet activation. Ticagrelor and its active metabolite are approximately equipotent.

12.2 Pharmacodynamics

The inhibition of platelet aggregation (IPA) by ticagrelor and clopidogrel was compared in a 6-week study examining both acute and chronic platelet inhibition effects in response to 20 μM ADP as the platelet aggregation agonist.

The onset of IPA was evaluated on Day 1 of the study following loading doses of 180 mg ticagrelor or 600 mg clopidogrel. As shown in Figure 4, IPA was higher in the ticagrelor group at all time points. The maximum IPA effect of ticagrelor was reached at around 2 hours, and was maintained for at least 8 hours.

The offset of IPA was examined after 6 weeks on ticagrelor 90 mg twice daily or clopidogrel 75 mg daily, again in response to 20 μM ADP.

As shown in Figure 5, mean maximum IPA following the last dose of ticagrelor was 88% and 62% for clopidogrel. The insert in Figure 5 shows that after 24 hours, IPA in the ticagrelor group (58%) was similar to IPA in clopidogrel group (52%), indicating that patients who miss a dose of ticagrelor would still maintain IPA similar to the trough IPA of patients treated with clopidogrel. After 5 days, IPA in the ticagrelor group was similar to IPA in the placebo group. It is not known how either bleeding risk or thrombotic risk track with IPA, for either ticagrelor or clopidogrel.

Figure 4 — Mean inhibition of platelet aggregation (±SE) following single oral doses of placebo, 180 mg ticagrelor or 600 mg clopidogrel

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Figure 5 — Mean inhibition of platelet aggregation (IPA) following 6 weeks on placebo, ticagrelor 90 mg twice daily, or clopidogrel 75 mg daily

figure_5
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Transitioning from clopidogrel to BRILINTA resulted in an absolute IPA increase of 26.4% and from BRILINTA to clopidogrel resulted in an absolute IPA decrease of 24.5%. Patients can be transitioned from clopidogrel to BRILINTA without interruption of antiplatelet effect [see Dosage and Administration (2)].

12.3 Pharmacokinetics

Ticagrelor demonstrates dose proportional pharmacokinetics, which are similar in patients and healthy volunteers.

Absorption

BRILINTA can be taken with or without food. Absorption of ticagrelor occurs with a median tmax of 1.5 h (range 1.0–4.0). The formation of the major circulating metabolite AR-C124910XX (active) from ticagrelor occurs with a median tmax of 2.5 h (range 1.5-5.0).

The mean absolute bioavailability of ticagrelor is about 36% (range 30%-42%). Ingestion of a high-fat meal had no effect on ticagrelor Cmax , but resulted in a 21% increase in AUC. The Cmax of its major metabolite was decreased by 22% with no change in AUC.

BRILINTA as crushed tablets mixed in water, given orally or administered through a nasogastric tube into the stomach, is bioequivalent to whole tablets (AUC and Cmax within 80-125% for ticagrelor and AR-C124910XX) with a median tmax of 1.0 hour (range 1.0 – 4.0) for ticagrelor and 2.0 hours (range 1.0 – 8.0) for AR-C124910XX.

Distribution

The steady state volume of distribution of ticagrelor is 88 L. Ticagrelor and the active metabolite are extensively bound to human plasma proteins (>99%).

Metabolism

CYP3A4 is the major enzyme responsible for ticagrelor metabolism and the formation of its major active metabolite. Ticagrelor and its major active metabolite are weak P-glycoprotein substrates and inhibitors. The systemic exposure to the active metabolite is approximately 30-40% of the exposure of ticagrelor.

Excretion

The primary route of ticagrelor elimination is hepatic metabolism. When radiolabeled ticagrelor is administered, the mean recovery of radioactivity is approximately 84% (58% in feces, 26% in urine). Recoveries of ticagrelor and the active metabolite in urine were both less than 1% of the dose. The primary route of elimination for the major metabolite of ticagrelor is most likely to be biliary secretion. The mean t1/2 is approximately 7 hours for ticagrelor and 9 hours for the active metabolite.

Specific Populations

The effects of age, gender, ethnicity, renal impairment and mild hepatic impairment on the pharmacokinetics of ticagrelor are presented in Figure 6. Effects are modest and do not require dose adjustment.

Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease on Hemodialysis

In patients with end stage renal disease on hemodialysis AUC and Cmax of BRILINTA 90 mg administered on a day without dialysis were 38% and 51% higher respectively, compared to subjects with normal renal function. A similar increase in exposure was observed when BRILINTA was administered immediately prior to dialysis showing that BRILINTA is not dialyzable. Exposure of the active metabolite increased to a lesser extent. The IPA effect of BRILINTA was independent of dialysis in patients with end stage renal disease and similar to healthy adults with normal renal function.

Figure 6 — Impact of intrinsic factors on the pharmacokinetics of ticagrelor

figure_6
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Effects of Other Drugs on BRILINTA

CYP3A4 is the major enzyme responsible for ticagrelor metabolism and the formation of its major active metabolite. The effects of other drugs on the pharmacokinetics of ticagrelor are presented in Figure 7 as change relative to ticagrelor given alone (test/reference). Strong CYP3A inhibitors (e.g., ketoconazole, itraconazole, and clarithromycin) substantially increase ticagrelor exposure. Moderate CYP3A inhibitors have lesser effects (e.g., diltiazem). CYP3A inducers (e.g., rifampin) substantially reduce ticagrelor blood levels. P-gp inhibitors (e.g., cyclosporine) increase ticagrelor exposure.

Co-administration of 5 mg intravenous morphine with 180 mg loading dose of ticagrelor decreased observed mean ticagrelor exposure by up to 25% in healthy adults and up to 36% in ACS patients undergoing PCI. Tmax was delayed by 1-2 hours. Exposure of the active metabolite decreased to a similar extent. Morphine co-administration did not delay or decrease platelet inhibition in healthy adults. Mean platelet aggregation was higher up to 3 hours post loading dose in ACS patients co-administered with morphine.

Co-administration of intravenous fentanyl with 180 mg loading dose of ticagrelor in ACS patients undergoing PCI resulted in similar effects on ticagrelor exposure and platelet inhibition.

Figure 7 — Effect of co-administered drugs on the pharmacokinetics of ticagrelor

figure_7
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*See Dosage and Administration (2)

Effects of BRILINTA on Other Drugs

In vitro metabolism studies demonstrate that ticagrelor and its major active metabolite are weak inhibitors of CYP3A4, potential activators of CYP3A5 and inhibitors of the P-gp transporter. Ticagrelor and AR-C124910XX were shown to have no inhibitory effect on human CYP1A2, CYP2C19, and CYP2E1 activity. For specific in vivo effects on the pharmacokinetics of simvastatin, atorvastatin, ethinyl estradiol, levonorgesterol, tolbutamide, digoxin and cyclosporine, see Figure 8.

Figure 8 — Impact of BRILINTA on the pharmacokinetics of co-administered drugs

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