Brimonidine Tartrate/Timolol Maleate
BRIMONIDINE TARTRATE/TIMOLOL MALEATE- brimonidine tartrate and timolol maleate solution/ drops
Actavis Pharma, Inc.
1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE
Brimonidine tartrate/timolol maleate ophthalmic solution 0.2%/0.5% is an alpha-adrenergic receptor agonist with a beta-adrenergic receptor inhibitor indicated for the reduction of elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension who require adjunctive or replacement therapy due to inadequately controlled IOP; the IOP-lowering of brimonidine tartrate/timolol maleate ophthalmic solution dosed twice a day was slightly less than that seen with the concomitant administration of 0.5% timolol maleate ophthalmic solution dosed twice a day and 0.2% brimonidine tartrate ophthalmic solution dosed three times per day.
2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
The recommended dose is one drop of brimonidine tartrate/timolol maleate ophthalmic solution in the affected eye(s) twice daily approximately 12 hours apart. If more than one topical ophthalmic product is to be used, the different products should be instilled at least 5 minutes apart.
3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS
Solution containing 2 mg/mL brimonidine tartrate and 5 mg/mL timolol (6.8 mg/mL timolol maleate).
4.1 Reactive Airway Disease Including Asthma, COPD
Brimonidine tartrate/timolol maleate ophthalmic solution is contraindicated in patients with reactive airway disease including bronchial asthma; a history of bronchial asthma; severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1, 5.3)].
4.2 Sinus Bradycardia, AV Block, Cardiac Failure, Cardiogenic Shock
Brimonidine tartrate/timolol maleate ophthalmic solution is contraindicated in patients with sinus bradycardia; second or third degree atrioventricular block; overt cardiac failure [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)] ; cardiogenic shock.
4.3 Neonates and Infants (Under the Age of 2 Years)
Brimonidine tartrate/timolol maleate ophthalmic solution is contraindicated in neonates and infants (under the age of 2 years).
4.4 Hypersensitivity Reactions
Local hypersensitivity reactions have occurred following the use of different components of brimonidine tartrate/timolol maleate. Brimonidine tartrate/timolol maleate ophthalmic solution is contraindicated in patients who have exhibited a hypersensitivity reaction to any component of this medication in the past.
5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
5.1 Potential for Severe Respiratory or Cardiac Reactions
Brimonidine tartrate/timolol maleate ophthalmic solution contains timolol maleate; and although administered topically can be absorbed systemically. Therefore, the same types of adverse reactions found with systemic administration of beta-adrenergic blocking agents may occur with topical administration. For example, severe respiratory reactions and cardiac reactions including death due to bronchospasm in patients with asthma, and rarely death in association with cardiac failure have been reported following systemic or ophthalmic administration of timolol maleate [see Contraindications (4.1)]. Additionally, ophthalmic beta-blockers may impair compensatory tachycardia and increase risk of hypotension.
5.2 Cardiac Failure
Sympathetic stimulation may be essential for support of the circulation in individuals with diminished myocardial contractility, and its inhibition by beta-adrenergic receptor blockade may precipitate more severe failure.
In patients without a history of cardiac failure, continued depression of the myocardium with beta-blocking agents over a period of time can, in some cases, lead to cardiac failure. At the first sign or symptom of cardiac failure, brimonidine tartrate/timolol maleate ophthalmic solution should be discontinued [see Contraindications ( 4.2)].
5.3 Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (e.g., chronic bronchitis, emphysema) of mild or moderate severity, bronchospastic disease, or a history of bronchospastic disease (other than bronchial asthma or a history of bronchial asthma, in which brimonidine tartrate/timolol maleate ophthalmic solution is contraindicated [see Contraindications (4.1)]) should, in general, not receive beta-blocking agents, including brimonidine tartrate/timolol maleate ophthalmic solution.
5.4 Potentiation of Vascular Insufficiency
Brimonidine tartrate/timolol maleate ophthalmic solution may potentiate syndromes associated with vascular insufficiency. Brimonidine tartrate/timolol maleate ophthalmic solution should be used with caution in patients with depression, cerebral or coronary insufficiency, Raynaud’s phenomenon, orthostatic hypotension, or thromboangiitis obliterans.
5.5 Increased Reactivity to Allergens
While taking beta-blockers, patients with a history of atopy or a history of severe anaphylactic reactions to a variety of allergens may be more reactive to repeated accidental, diagnostic, or therapeutic challenge with such allergens. Such patients may be unresponsive to the usual doses of epinephrine used to treat anaphylactic reactions.
5.6 Potentiation of Muscle Weakness
Beta-adrenergic blockade has been reported to potentiate muscle weakness consistent with certain myasthenic symptoms (e.g., diplopia, ptosis, and generalized weakness). Timolol has been reported rarely to increase muscle weakness in some patients with myasthenia gravis or myasthenic symptoms.
5.7 Masking of Hypoglycemic Symptoms in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus
Beta-adrenergic blocking agents should be administered with caution in patients subject to spontaneous hypoglycemia or to diabetic patients (especially those with labile diabetes) who are receiving insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents. Beta-adrenergic receptor blocking agents may mask the signs and symptoms of acute hypoglycemia.
5.8 Masking of T hyrotoxicosis
Beta-adrenergic blocking agents may mask certain clinical signs (e.g., tachycardia) of hyperthyroidism. Patients suspected of developing thyrotoxicosis should be managed carefully to avoid abrupt withdrawal of beta-adrenergic blocking agents that might precipitate a thyroid storm.
5.9 Ocular Hypersensitivity
Ocular hypersensitivity reactions have been reported with brimonidine tartrate ophthalmic solutions 0.2%, with some reported to be associated with an increase in intraocular pressure [see Contraindications (4.4)].
5.10 Contamination of Topical Ophthalmic Products After Use
There have been reports of bacterial keratitis associated with the use of multiple-dose containers of topical ophthalmic products. These containers had been inadvertently contaminated by patients who, in most cases, had a concurrent corneal disease or a disruption of the ocular epithelial surface [see Patient Counseling Information ( 17)].
5.11 Impairment of Beta-adrenergically Mediated Reflexes During Surgery
The necessity or desirability of withdrawal of beta-adrenergic blocking agents prior to major surgery is controversial. Beta-adrenergic receptor blockade impairs the ability of the heart to respond to beta-adrenergically mediated reflex stimuli. This may augment the risk of general anesthesia in surgical procedures. Some patients receiving beta-adrenergic receptor blocking agents have experienced protracted severe hypotension during anesthesia. Difficulty in restarting and maintaining the heartbeat has also been reported. For these reasons, in patients undergoing elective surgery, some authorities recommend gradual withdrawal of beta-adrenergic receptor blocking agents.
If necessary during surgery, the effects of beta-adrenergic blocking agents may be reversed by sufficient doses of adrenergic agonists.
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